Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Shrubs, usually covered with candelabra or stellate hairs or both mixed in all juvenile parts. Leaves opposite or subopposite, sessile or petiolate, tomentose or mealy when young, glabrous when old, curvipinnate and rectipinnate. Inflorescences centrifugal pseudoracemes or compound dichasia; flower buds ellipsoid-clavate to spathulate. Flowers bracteate, ebracteolate, zygomorphic, sympetalous, 4-gonous. Calyculus obsolete. Petals 4, united, curved; tube terete or tetragonous, ventricose just before anthesis; lobes 4, spoon-shaped, unilaterally reflexed after anthesis. Stamens 4, erect; filaments terete or subterete, adnate to the corolla; anthers variable, basifixed, isothecate, anisothecate, circumthecate or not, elevatilobate, planilobate, with or without sterile apex. Ovary clavate or obconical, usually strongly attenuating towards base and with narrow calyx rim; smooth or rugose; style tetragonous, equal to petals; stigma conical, capitate or subglobose. Fruits tubercled or areolate, hairy or glabrous; exocarp coriaceous; endocarp viscous; seeds in the widest part of the fruit. Endosperm obovate, horned or not, mamillate or not, smooth, ribbed, with appressed scales.

South-east Asia, ca 23 species; 10 species in India.


1a. Flower buds distinctly tetragonous 2
b. Flower buds terete or subtetragonous 6
2a. Mature leaves glabrous 3
b. Mature leaves hairy above 4
3a. Inflorescence a compound dichasium 5. Scurrula fusca
b. Inflorescence a centrifugal pseudoraceme 5
4a. Young twigs with stellate hairs; lateral nerves rectipinnate; midrib evanescent towards apex; filaments erect at anthesis; epigynous glands present; fruits with brown stellate hairs 7. Scurrula leenhoutsii
b. Young twigs with candelabra hairs; lateral nerves curvipinnate; midrib extending up to apex; filaments twisted at anthesis; epigynous glands absent; fruits glabrous 3. Scurrula eglandulosa
5a. Inflorescence a centrifugal pseudoraceme; lateral nerves 5 - 7 pairs, distinct beneath, obscure above; anthers isothecate; ovary obcuneate; fruits with tubercles and reticulate markings 1. Scurrula atropurpurea
b. Inflorescence a compound dichasium; lateral nerves 3 - 4 pairs, distinct on both surfaces; anthers anisothecate; ovary clavate; fruits tubercled, not with reticulate markings 10. Scurrula steenisii
6a. Anthers without sterile apex; ovary obconical 7
b. Anthers with sterile apex; ovary clavate 8
7a. Leaves both opposite and alternate; midrib evanescent towards apex; anthers circumthecate; epigynous glands present; fruits glabrous; endosperm horned 4. Scurrula elata
b. Leaves subopposite or opposite; midrib extending up to apex; anthers anisothecate; epigynous glands absent; fruits hairy; endosperm hornless 9. Scurrula pulverulenta
8a. Young leaves clothed with velvety shiny white mealy tomentum, consisting of elongated candelabra hairs on both surfaces; midrib evanescent towards apex; petioles 14 - 22 mm long; flower buds with abruptly acute apex; endosperm puncutate 2. Scurrula cordifolia
b. Young leaves clothed with non-velvety dull brown or rusty brown candelabra hairs mixed with stellate hairs on both surfaces; midrib extending up to apex; petioles 3-7 mm long; flower buds with clavate apex; endosperm smooth 9
9a. Leaves larger, 8 - 12 x 2 - 6 cm, pale tomentose beneath when mature; lateral nerves curvipinnate; inflorescence centrifugal pseudoraceme; flower buds club-shaped, erect; corolla dark red outside and purple inside; corolla and style 8 - 15 mm long; anthers isothecate; fruits smooth; endosperm hornless, smooth 8. Scurrula parasitica
b. Leaves smaller, 6 - 8 x 1.5 - 3 cm, glabrous beneath when mature; lateral nerves rectipinnate; inflorescence a compound dichasium; flower buds linear-cylindric, curved; corolla dark brown outside and red inside; corolla and style 20 - 30 mm long; anthers anisothecate; fruits rugose; endosperm horned, ribbed 6. Scurrula gracilifolia

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