Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Shrubs or trees, usually dioecious, rheophytic. Leaves alternate, willow-like, entire or toothed, penninerved, densely and minutely glandular lepidote-scaly beneath, shortly petioled; stipules small, caducous. Inflorescences many or few-flowered axillary, unbranched spikes or racemes, often from old wood. Male flowers: calyx deeply 3-partite, splitting into 8 valvate segments; petals and disc absent; stamens numerous, largely connate into several paniculate or dendroid fascicles which are coherent at base in a dense globose head; anther-thecae subglobose, divaricate, sessile on the filament; connective obscure; pistillode absent. Female flowers: sepals 5 (or 6), unequal, imbricate, caducous; petals and disc absent; ovary 3-loculed, globose; ovule solitary in each locule; styles spreading, entire; stigmas 3, sessile, laciniate on inner surface. Fruits capsular rhegmas, flattened, 3-lobed, tricoccous, smooth, puberulous, sometimes with soft prickles ending in rigid bristle; seeds covered by red arillode; testa crustaceous, hard with a thin fleshy coat; endosperm fleshy; cotyledons broad, flat.

India to S. China, Taiwan, Malesia and New Guinea, 3 species; all in India.


1a. Leaves densely lepidote-scaly beneath; spikes 10 - 15 cm long 3. Homonoia riparia
b. Leaves not densely lepidote-scaly beneath; spikes not more than 5 cm long 2
2a. Leaves sparsely lepidote-scaly beneath; male and female spikes 1 - 2 cm long 2. Homonoia retusa
b. Leaves moderately lepidote-scaly beneath; male spikes up to 1 cm long; female spikes 3 - 5 cm long 1. Homonoia intermedia

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