Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Macaranga Thouars

Trees or shrubs, dioecious; twigs somewhat hollow. Leaves alternate, usually broad and often large, peltate or not, entire or sometimes 3 (- 5)-lobed, glandular beneath, 3 - 5-plinerved at base, sometimes with basal glands above, often gland-dotted beneath; petioles often long; stipules small and narrowly triangular, to very large and ovate to rounded. Flowers in axillary or terminal racemes or panicles, apetalous; bracts large, sometimes fimbriate or often patelliformglandular. Male flowers: clustered along rachis or branches of inflorescences, sessile or very shortly pedicelled, with a large, entire, toothed or fringed bract under each cluster; calyx closed in bud, opening into 3 or 4 valvate segments; stamens 1 - 30; filaments free; anthers 3 or 4- locular, almost peltately dorsifixed; connectives incomplete, shorter than thecae; disc rarely present; pistillode absent. Female flowers solitary, few or several in a cluster at each node; bracts often fringed or ciliate; calyx closed in bud, opening obliquely, truncate or shortly toothed; ovary 1 - 6-loculed; ovule solitary in each locule; styles 2 or 3, entire, linear-subulate, shortly united at base, unlobed. Fruits capsular or leathery to berry-like capsules, 2-valved with naked or armed cocci, often glandular or with a waxy coat, often muricate or tuberculate, loculicidally dehiscing into bivalved parts; seeds globose, ecarunculate; testa crustaceous or osseous; endosperm fleshy; cotyledons broad and flat.

Paleotropical, ca 289 species; 9 species in India.

Literature. WHITMORE, T. C. (1978). Studies in Macaranga VII. The genus in “Greater India”. Gard. Bull. Singapore 31: 51 – 56.


1a. Leaves nearly lanceolate, penninerved 2
b. Leaves broadly ovate, rhombate or orbicular, palmately nerved 4
2a. Male flowers clustered on elongate pendulous simple spikes 1. Macaranga andamanica
b. Male flowers clustered in panicles 3
3a. Stamens 16 - 22; fruits 2-lobed; seeds smooth 5. Macaranga lowii
b. Stamens 15 - 20; fruits 3-lobed; seeds wrinkled 3. Macaranga gamblei
4a. Ovary 1-loculed and 1-ovuled 5
b. Ovary more than 1-loculed and more than 1-ovuled 6
5a. Bracts sparsely dentate or entire, teeth often glandular inside; rarely eglandular 7. Macaranga peltata
b. Bracts entire, thick, 1-glandular outside, eglandular inside 4. Macaranga indica
6a. Ovary 2 or rarely 3-loculed; ovary and fruits smooth, unarmed 2. Macaranga denticulata
b. Ovary 3 or more loculed, rarely 2-loculed; ovary and fruits echinate or armed with spines or spinules 7
7a. Leaves large, more than 70 cm across 6. Macaranga nicobarica
b. Leaves less than 70 cm across 8
8 a. Leaves not trilobed; stamens 2 - 12; anthers 4-loculed; ovary 2 - 5-loculed 8. Macaranga tanarius
b. Leaves trilobed at apex; stamen single; anthers 3-loculed; ovary 4 - 6-loculed 9. Macaranga triloba

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