Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Taxillus Tiegh.

Shrubs; juvenile parts covered with candelabra hairs mixed with stellate hairs and/or abietiform hairs mixed with stellate hairs. Leaves alternate, opposite or subopposite, sessile or petiolate, glabrous above and hairy beneath as in juvenile parts or glabrous on both surfaces, palmati-pinnate and curvipinnate. Inflorescence simple dichasium, reduced dichasium or compound dichasium; flower buds spathulate or ventricose. Flowers bracteate, ebracteolate, zygomorphic, sympetalous, 4 or 5-merous. Calyculus obsolete or present and lobed. Petals 4 or 5, united; tube terete or ventricose; lobes 4 or 5, unilaterally reflexed or obliquely erect after anthesis. Stamens 4 or 5, erect; filaments terete or subterete; anthers isothecate or anisothecate, with or without sterile apex. Ovary attenuated toward base; style tetragonous, tumid or continuous; stigma capitate or subglobose, smooth. Fruits pseudocarps, smooth or papillate or with reticulate markings, glabrous or hairy.

South and South-east Asia from Indian subcontinent to Malesia, ca 35 species; 13 species in India.


1a. Leaves opposite or both opposite and alternate; flowers tetramerous; hairs when present in flowers both of candelabra and stellate types 2
b. Leaves always alternate; flowers pentamerous; hairs when present in flowers both of abietiform and stellate types 9
2a. Flower buds clavate or spathulate 3
b. Flower buds ventricose 7
3a. Inflorescence simple dichasium 9. Taxillus reflexilobus
b. Inflorescence compound dichasium 4
4a. Midrib evanescent towards apex 5
b. Midrib extending up to apex 6
5a. Branchlets glabrous; leaves attenuate at apex; peduncles 5 – 8-flowered; calyculus obsolete 7. Taxillus kuijtii
b. Branchlets hairy; leaves acute to obtuse at apex; peduncles 3 – 4-flowered; calyculus not obsolete 12. Taxillus umbellifer
6a. Lenticels circular; bark brown or black; petioles 10 - 12 mm long; flower buds subtetragonous with clavate apex; ovary cupular, slightly rugulose 10. Taxillus rugosus
b. Lenticels elliptic; bark purplish brown; petioles 5 - 8 mm long; flower buds terete with globose apex; ovary oblong-cylindric, smooth 5. Taxillus erectiflorus
7a. Mature leaves clothed with candelabra hairs mixed with pale brown stellate hairs beneath; inflorescence simple dichasium; corolla-lobes spathulate; ovary subturbinate 13. Taxillus vestitus
b. Mature leaves glabrous on both surfaces; inflorescence reduced dichasium; corolla-lobes elliptic or ovate; ovary turbinate 8
8a. Leaves petiolate; flowers pedicellate; bracts ovate, shorter than ovary; flower buds clavate with conical apex 1. Taxillus assamicus
b. Leaves sessile or subsessile; flowers sessile; bracts obovate, longer than ovary; flower buds ventricose 4. Taxillus danserianus
9a. Bracts longer than calyculus 10
b. Bracts shorter than calyculus 11
10a. Leaves narrowly obovate; lateral nerves curvipinnate; bracts elliptic, one-time longer than ovary; flower buds rounded at apex; calyculus and corolla ultimately becoming glabrous 2. Taxillus courtallensis
b. Leaves orbicular to suborbicular; lateral nerves palmatipinnate; bracts obovate, 3 or 4-times longer than ovary; flower buds clavate at apex; calyculus and corolla with persistent hairs 6. Taxillus heyneanus
11a. Corolla glabrous; anthers multilocellate; ovary oblong-cylindric; endosperm horned 3. Taxillus cuneatus
b. Corolla clothed with abietiform hairs mixed with stellate hairs; anthers quadrilocellate; ovary subturbinate; endosperm hornless 12
12a. Nodes meristematically knotty; inflorescence simple dichasium; calyculus irregularly lobed; anthers without sterile apex; style articulated; endosperm punctate in upper quarter region 8. Taxillus recurvus
b. Nodes not meristematically knotty; inflorescence reduced dichasium; calyculus regularly toothed; anthers with sterile apex; style not articulated; endosperm completely smooth 11. Taxillus tomentosus

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