Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Tolypanthus (Blume) Rchb.

Shrubs, glabrous or juvenile parts with vermillion-red stellate hairs. Leaves opposite and alternate, petiolate or sessile; major venation curvipinnate. Inflorescence a capitulum, axillary or ramiflorous; involucral bracts 4 or 5, ovate, free or connate, enclosing a cluster of 3 or 4 flowers; flower buds ventricose. Flowers ebracteolate, actinomorphic, 5-merous, sympetalous, covered with stellate or anvil hairs. Calyculus-tube entire or lobed. Petals 5, united; tube straight, ventricose, divided halfway; lobes 5, linear, reflexed after anthesis. Stamens 5, erect or recurved; filaments flat or tetragonous; anthers anisothecate, circumthecate or not, elevatilobate, with or without sterile apex. Ovary subglobose, smooth; style 4-gonous; stigma conical or subglobose. Fruits pseudocarps, hidden by persistent bracts, smooth. Endosperm horned, mamillate.

India, Myanmar to Malesia, 5 species; 3 in India.


1a. Involucral bracts 4, free; peduncles 2 or 3 in each axil; corolla not transversely ridged; stamens recurved; anthers without sterile apex; stigma conical-capitate 1. Tolypanthus involucratus
b. Involucral bracts 5, connate; peduncle solitary in each axil; corolla transversely ridged; stamens erect; anthers with sterile apex; stigma subglobose 2
2a. Bark ridged; lenticels circular; young branches and leaves glabrous; leaves distinctly petiolate, not amplexicaule at base; inflorescence axillary; flower buds with subacute apex; flowers with distinct thickenings; calyculus entire; corolla-lobes not lunately humped dorsally; filaments tetragonous 2. Tolypanthus lageniferus
b. Bark fissured; lenticels transversely elongated; young branches and leaves cov-ered with vermillion-red stellate hairs; leaves sessile or subsessile, amplexicaule at base; inflorescence usually ramiflorous; flower buds with truncate apex; flowers with faint sinuate thickenings; calyculus 5-lobed; corolla-lobes lunately humped dorsally; filaments terete 3. Tolypanthus lunatus

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