Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Trees, shrubs or herbs, rarely scandent; laticifers not articulated; latex usually white, sometimes scanty or apparently absent; indumentum simple or absent. Leaves alternate or opposite, simple, entire or dentate, usually pinnately veined, often with glands at base of blade; stipules usually small or absent. Inflorescences terminal or axillary, spicate or racemose, paniculate or cyathiate; bracts often biglandular at base; flowers apetalous. Male flowers: sepals 3 - 6, imbricate or valvate, mostly open in bud, often reduced or obsolete; disc absent; stamens 1 - 20 (- 70); filaments free or connate; pistillode absent. Female flowers: sepals 3 - 6, free or connate, imbricate or open in bud, sometimes reduced or obsolete; disc absent; ovary 2 - 3 (- 20)-locular; styles 3, free or connate into a column. Fruits 3-coccous, capsular, rarely drupaceous; seeds carunculate or ecarunculate; testa dry or fleshy; endosperm copious.

Tropical, subtropical and temperate regions around the World, ca 40 genera; 4 indigenous and 3 cultivated genera in India.


1a. Inflorescences cyathiate, usually with a single terminal pistillate floret and 4 or 5 lateral monochasia or dichasia of male flowers; perianth reduced or absent; styles mostly bifid Tribe 1. EUPHORBIEAE
b. Inflorescences mostly racemose or spicate (if capitate, not cyathiate); male flowers usually with developed calyx; styles mostly undivided 2
2a. Floral bracts usually biglandular at base, not peltate, nor adnate to the rachis; seeds carunculate or ecarunculate Tribe 2. HIPPOMANEAE
b. Floral bracts eglandular, peltate or adnate to the rachis of inflorescences and covering flowers; seeds ecarunculate (cult.) Tribe 3. HUREAE

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