Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Tiliacora Colebr.

Evergreen woody climbers; branches with distinct discoid petiole-scars. Leaves alternate, coriaceous, pinnately 3 - 5-nerved with steeply ascending basal nerves; petioles flattened, twisted at base, curved at apex, slightly longer in male plants than in female plants; stipules occasionally present. Inflorescences axillary or cauliflorous or mixed panicles or pseudoracemes composed of few-flowered peduncled cymes, mostly reduced to solitary flowers in female inflorescences. Flowers sessile; sepals 6 - 12, free in 3 rows, ovate-acute, fleshy; outer ones smallest; inner ones largest, valvate; petals 3 or 6, free, much shorter than inner sepals. Male flowers: stamens 3 - 9, usually free; filaments stout; anthers 2-loculed, introrse, dehiscing obliquely by longitudinal slits; pistillode absent or seen occasionally. Female flowers: staminodes absent or occasionally present; carpels (3-) 6 - 12 (-15), apocarpous or inserted on gynophore; ovule 1, on basal placentation; style recurved; stigma simple. Drupes subobovoid, shortly stipitate (borne on branches of gynophore); condyle linear, deeply intruding, forming a septum; endocarp hard, often deeply ruminate. Seed horse-shoe-shaped; cotyledons compressed, incumbent, fleshy, flattened, much longer than radicle.

Tropical Africa and S.E. Asia; ca 19 species, 2 species in India.


1a Petioles and midrib on lower surface of lamina not verruculose; lateral nerves free at margin; inner whorls of male flowers ca 4 mm long; stamens 6, 2 - 3.5 mm long; drupes 10 - 12 mm long; endocarp obscurely reticulate 1. Tiliacora acuminata
b. Petioles and basal part of midrib on lower surface of lamina verruculose; lateral nerves united at margin; inner sepals of male flowers ca 2 mm long; stamens 3, 1.5 - 2 mm long; drupes 7 - 18 mm long; endocarp transversely and irregularly ridged 2. Tiliacora trianedra

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