Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Hook. f. & Thomson, Fl. Ind. 184. 1855 & in Fl. Brit. India 1: 97. 1872. Menispermum cordifolium Willd., Sp. Pl. 4: 826. 1806. Cocculus cordifolius (Willd.) DC., Syst. 1: 517. 1818.

Asm.: Hoguni-lot; Beng.: Gulancho,· Mal.: Chittamruth, Siddamirth; Mar.: Gulval; Nep.: Gurjo; Tam.: Chintil, Senthil-kodi; Tel.: Tippa-tiga.

Deciduous woody climbers, up to 10 m high, entirely glabrous; stems striate when young, often with scattered lenticels, sometimes with aerial roots; bark corky, flaking off with age. Leaves broadly ovate-cordate, sinuate at base, abruptly cuspidate-acuminate at apex, 4 - 15 x 4.5 - 13 cm, glabrous; basal nerves 5 - 7, palmate; domatia usually present on lower surface in nerve-axils; petioles pulvinate, 2 - 7 cm long. Inflorescences pseudoracemose, axillary or on leafless branches, usually solitary, 5 -15 cm long, slender. Male flowers fascicled, yellow; pedicels 3 - 4 mm long, slender; outer 3 sepals ovate, 1 - 1.5 mm long; inner 3 elliptic, concave, 3 - 4 mm long; petals 6, rhembic-unguiculate, papillose outside at base, with incurved lateral edges, 2 - 2.5 mm long, green; stamens 6, free; filaments clavate, ca 3 mm long; anthers longitudinally dehiscent. Female flowers solitary; pedicels ca 5 mm long; petals spathulate, ca 2.5 mm long; staminodes 6, ca 1.5 mm long; carpels 3, ellipsoid, ca 1.75 mm long; stigma capitate. Drupes globose, red, radiating from a ca 2 mm long carpophore; peduncles 4 - 7 mm long; pericarp drying very thin; style scar subterminal; endocarp very thinly bony, broadly elliptic or subrotund in outline, 6 - 7 mm long, rounded at both ends, ventrally flattened with a weak dorsal ridge, slightly papillose on surface.

Fl. Jan. - April; Fr. Jan. - May.

Distrib. India: Along hedges and in moist deciduous subtropical forests and scrubs, from plains to 1400 m. Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Orissa, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.

SriLanka, Bangladesh and Myanmar.

Notes. An ingredient in several Ayurvedic preparations; used for general debility, dyspepsia, fevers and urinary diseases and to heal fractures (in Bihar). Antiviral properties against Ranikhet disease in poultry have been reported. Elephants are fond of aerial roots. Dried stem powder, washed with water, mixed with honey is used to treat coughs.

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