Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Tamarix dioica Roxb. ex Roth, Nov. Pl. Sp.185. 1821; Dyer in Fl. Brit. India 1: 249. 1874. T. longepedunculata Blatt. & Hallb. in J. Ind. Bot. Soc. 1: 86. 1919. T. bengalensis Baum, Gen. Tamarix 181, 84. 1978.

Asm., Beng. & Hindi: Jhau, Lal-jhau; Guj.: Achhilaijo Pras, Bhruri Pros; Kash.: Rgelta; Punj.: Pilchi, Jhau; Raj.: Pilchi, Kachlei.

Shrubs or small trees, 2 - 3 (-5) m high. Leaves 0.7 - 3 mm long, vaginate, free part broadly triangular-lanceolate to triangular-ovate, keeled, acuminate at apex. Racemes aestival, simple or compound, each 2 - 8 x 0.4 - 0.7 cm; bracts 2 - 3 mm long, broadly ovate-lanceolate to trullate-ovate, keeled, acuminate at apex, denticulate to subentire. Flowers spirally arranged on rachis, pink, pinkish-violet or pinkish-red. Male flowers: Sepals 5,1 - 1.7 x 0.7 - 1.2 mm, trullate-ovate to broadly ovate or suborbicular, rounded at apex, upper half denticulate, subequal, outer two strongly keeled. Petals 5, 1.7 - 2.5 x 0.7 - 1.5 mm, obovate or oblong-obovate. Stamens 5, exserted; filaments 2.5 - 4 mm long, mesodiscine. Disc ca 0.5 mm across, deeply 5-lobed. Ovary abortive or absent. Female flowers: Appear as bisexual but stamens functionally sterile. Sepals as in male. Petals 5,1.7 - 0.5 x 0.7 - 1.5 mm, obtriangular-obovate to elliptic-obovate. Staminodes 5, included; filaments 1.2 - 2 mm long. Capsules 3.5 - 5 mm long with persistent sepals and staminodes and subpersistent petals. Seeds ca 0.5 mm long; coma 2.75 - 3 mm long.

Fl. April - Dec.; Fr. July - Jan.

Distrib. India: Gregarious along the banks of rivers and streams. Jammu & Kashmir(Kashmir), Punjab, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Assam, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Maharashtra.

Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, Nepal, Bangladesh and Myanmar.

Notes. It provides a moderately good firewood. The wood is also. employed in turnery and for making Persian-wheels in Punjab and for making polo sticks in Ladakh. Baskets are made out of the twigs. The galls are astringent and are also used as a mondant in dyeing and tanning. The manna is used in confectionary. It is a rich source of pollen for bees. Sometimes planted.

Chromosome number 2n = 24 (Malik, C.P.Sci. & Cult. 25: 437.1 960).

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