Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Calophyllum polyanthum Wallich ex Choisy, Descr. Guttif. lnde 43. 1849 & in Mem. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Geneve 12: 423. 1851; T. Anderson ill Fl. Brit. India 1: 274. 1874. C. elatum Beddome, Fl. Sylv. 22, t. 2. 1869. C. tomentosum auct. non Wight; T. Anderson in Fl. Brit. India 1: 274. 1874, p.p. C. angustifolium Dalz. & Gibs., Bombay Fl. 32. 1861, non Roxb. 1832.

Asm.: Dieng-karu, Pongoo, Sentebel; Beng.: Kandeb; Kan.: Kuve, Bobbi, Siri Poone, Shrihonay, Surhoni; Lep.: Sunglyer, Mal.: Katta pinna, Pinnapai Viri ,. Mar.: Pun, Negari; Nep.:kironli; Tam.: Kattapinnei, Pongu; Cach.: Telo; Eng.: The Poonsparor sirpoon tree.

Trees, 7 - 45 m tall; trunk ca 1.5 m girth; wood pale reddish-white to light reddish-brown with dark streaks, strong, elastic, ornamental; bark yellow, grey to brown or black, exfoliating in longitudinal, oblong flakes; branchlets, buds and panicles obscurely tomentose or subglabrous; internodes 0.5 - 4 (- 5) cm long; terminal bud plump, 7 - 10 (- 14) mm long, puberulent. Leaves 10 - 15 x 3 - 4 cm, ovate to elliptic to oblong-lanceolate, acute or cuneate narrowed into marginal petiole at base, obtuse or acute to acuminate at apex, undulate, shiny, coriaceous, glabrous, sparsely puberulous on prominent midrib when young; lateral veins minute, 9 - 16 (- 24), 5 mm apart, distinct on both surfaces, horizontal, nearly perpendicular to midrib; petioles 1 - 2 cm long, canaliculate above, pubescent, soon glabrescent; young leaves red. Racemes simple or paniculate terminal and axillary, as long as leaves, ca 16 cm long. Flowers 1 - 2 cm in diam., polygamous, tetramerous, scented; ebracteate or bracts soon deciduous; pedicels 4 - 10 (- 18) mm long, puberulent. Sepals 4, ciliolate, unequal, outer ones ovate to suborbicular, 2 - 4 x 2 - 3.5 mm, puberulent on outside, inner ones 4 - 8 x 3.5 - 6 mm, ovate-obovate to oblong-ovate, petaloid. Petals 4, spreading, longer than sepals, obovate-oblong, re-flexed-obtuse, concave. Stamens numerous (ca 140 - 320), yellow; filaments filiform, 2.5 - 4 mm long, connate at base; anthers 0.4 - 1 mm long and more or less elliptic, or 1.7 mm long, oblong, 2-loculed. Ovary 1.2 - 2.5 mm long, ovoid, 1-loculed with 1 erect ovule; styles 2 - 3 mm long, slender, flexuous; stigmas peltate, 0.7 - 1.2 mm across, 2 - 3-lobed. Drupes 2.5 - 3 x 2 cm, subglobose or ovoid to subovoid, blunt or shortly acuminate, smooth; yellow or dark purple at maturity; stone 1.9 - 2.6 x 1.5 - 1.8 cm, obovoid to ellipsoid, smooth. Seed elliptic or ovoid, brown.

Fl. & Fr. Jan. - July; sometimes up to Nov.

Distrib. India: In tropical wet evergreen forests of Western Ghats particularly in sholas and in Northeastern states in forests up to 1800 m. West Bengal, Sikkim, Assam, Meghalaya, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.

Thailand and South Western China.

Notes. Wood is antitermitic, used to furnish poonspars of commerce, ceiling boards, rafters, planking, cheap furniture, ship building, bridge building, general construction and paper pulp, etc. The timber is also used for making tea chests, tent poles, mathematical instruments, construction of ghat roads particularly leading to the sea coast. Seed oil used for illuminating purpose. Fruits edible.


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