Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Medium to large-sized, resinous trees with straight boles, buttressed bases and dome-shaped or flat crowns; bark pale or dark grey to orange brown., sometimes pink brown, shallowly flaked in patches, more or less prominently and densely verrucose-lenticellate. Leaves coriaceous, rarely thin, margin usually sinuate towards apex; nerves prominent beneath, straight, curved only towards margin, tertiary nerves scalariform; petioles distinctly geniculate, stout; stipules large, hastate to lorate, obtuse, more or less succulent, caducous. Inflorescences few-flowered, short, stout, zig-zag, somewhat irregularly, sparingly branched racemes. Flowers white or pink, large. Calyx 5-lobed, lobes valvate, two longer ones oblong to spathulate, more or less distinctly 3-nerved and developed into erect, strap-shaped or oblong, larger wings in the fruit, other three lobes remaining short and forming a crown round apex of the nut. Corolla lobes large, white or cream-coloured with a more or less dark crimson or pink stripe down the centre, narowly oblong. Stamens 15 to many, persisting in a ring around ovary after petals fall oft; filaments of variable length, broad, compressed, connate at base, tapering gradually and filiform below the anther; anthers long, linear, tapeing apically with 4 pollen sacs, inner two somewhat shorter than outer two; appendage of connective short, stout to filiform, glabrous. Ovary enclosed in calyx tube, the apex ovoid to conical, densely Puberuient; stylopodium cylindrical to filiform, densely puberulent, narrowing into a glabrous, filiform style. Fruit large, nut-like, enclosed in calyx tube with two lobes accrescent.

Sri Lanka and India, eastwards to Indo-China, Sumbawa, Borneo and the Philip-pines, ca 80 species; 10 in India.

Literature. As of family.


1a. Mature fruiting calyx tube angled, ribbed and winged 2
b. Mature fruiting calyx not angled, ribbed or winged 5
2a. Calyx tube with angles very narrowly winged 3
b. Calyx tube with angles widely winged 4
3a. Leaves glabrous on both surfaces; lateral nerves straight; flowers,5 - 6.3 cm across; two enlarged fruiting calyx lobes oblong-spathulate, 3-nerved from three-quarters of their length or throughout, an additional pair making 5-nerved towards base, glabrous, three short lobes elliptic 5. Dipterocarpus grandiflorus
b. Leaves densely tomentose with fine stellate hairs on both surfaces when young, becoming glabrous or nearly so above when old; lateral nerves ascending; flowers ca 1.8 cm across; two enlarged fruiting calyx lobes linear-oblong, 3-nerved, sparsely stellate-hairy, three short lobes suborbicular 3. Dipterocarpus costatus
4a. Young shoots clothed with buff-coloured indumentum of short, tangled hairs; lateral nerves of leaves 12 - 16 pairs; calyx tube stellate-hairy and pilose; corolla lobes oblong. stellate-pubescent, more densely outside; fruits thin, stellate-hairy, somewhat glaucous 1. Dipterocarpus alatus
b. Young shoots densely fulvous tomentose; lateral nerves 15 - 20 pairs; calyx tube glabrous; corolla lobes linear-spathulate, velutinous outside; fruits glabrous, glossy 2. Dipterocarpus bourdilloni
5a. Branchlets pubescent, tomentose or pilose 6
b. Branchlets glabrous (sometimes shortly buff puberulent in D. retusus) 8
6a. Stamens many; fruit belly broadly turbinate or ovoid; leaves glabrous, lateral veins looped along the margins; bark light grey, smooth, exfoliating in irregular, round flakes 6. Dipterocarpus indicus
b. Stamens up to 30; fruit belly globose, subglobose or ovoid 7
7a. Bark greyish-brown, scaly and lenticellate, exfoliating it round flakes; leaves ciliate along the margins, lateral nerves ascending; calyx sparsely stellate-hairy 4. Dipterocarpus gracilis
b. Bark pale bluish-grey outside, not lenticellate, closely vertically fissured; leaves thinly ciliate along the margins, lateral nerves straight and parallel; calyx velvety outside 8. Dipterocarpus mannii
8a. Fruits pointed towards both the ends, densely greyish dull brown silky outside; corolla lobes reaching 6.3 cm long, falcate; leaves sparsely pilose when young, glabrous above except along midrib when mature, stellate-pubescent beneath nerves 9. Dipterocarpus retusus
b. Fruits globose, ovoid or ellipsoid, blunt at apex, smooth and glabrous, glaucous; corolla lobes up to 3 cm long, linear or linear-oblong; leaves glabrous on both surfaces 9
9a. Fruits globose to subturbinate, without striations, linear wings of the fruit abruptly constricted and revolute at bile, strongly 3-nerved, nearly the whole lenath with an additional pair of longitudinal nerves more or less developed; bark dark grey, peeling off in flakes 7. Dipterocarpus kerrii
b. Fruits globular or ovoid or ellipsoid, smooth with marked striations; linear wings of fruit not as above but with one prominent median nerve and 2 basal smaller nerves; bark greyish brown, vertically fissured and irregularly flaking or cracking, rarely smooth, exfoliating in strips 10. Dipterocarpus turbinatus

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