Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb., [Hort. Beng. 42. 1814 nom. nud.] ex G. Don, Gen. Hist. 1: 813. 1831; Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2: 614. 1832; Dyer in Fl. Brit. India 1: 298. 1874, p.p. D. costatus Buch.-Ham. in Mem. Wern. Soc. 6: 300. 1827, non Gaertn. f. 1805. D. incanus Rom., [Hort. Beng. 42. 1814, nom. nud.] Fl. Ind. 2: 614. 1832; Dyer in Fl. Brit. India 1: 298.1874.

And.: Gurjun; Beng.: Dholi garjan, Dhulya garjan, Harra garjan, Sil garjan, Mashk-haliya garjan; Hindi: Gurjan.

Lofty evergreen trees, ca 60 m tall; bole straight, clear ca 6.5 m in girth; bark thin, smooth, light grey, pale yellow inside. Leaves 10 - 20 x 5.6 - 11.2 cm, ovate or elliptic-ovate, cuneate or broadly rounded at base, acute or short acuminate at apex, repand, shiny and nearly glabrous above except on veins, pubescent beneath; petioles 2.5 - 3.8 cm long, flattened above, softly pubescent; stipules 5 - 8.5 cm long, stellate-tomentose to pilose. Racemes axillary, simple or branched, 3 - 7-flowered, the lowest flower with a short pedicel, 3 - 3.5 cm long. Calyx tube 1 - 1.5 cm long, obconic with 5 wings starting from between the lobes and running down to the base; three shorter lobes ca 4 mm long, rounded or reflexed, two longer lobes ca 1.5 cm long, linear-oblong. Corolla lobes ca 3 cm long, white or yellowish-white. Stamens 30 - 32; filaments ca 4 mm long, flattened; anthers 4 - 5 mm long, connective produced into a 3 - 4 mm long bristle. Ovary densely tomentose; styles ca 1 cm long, stout, ribbed and pilose at base and glabrous towards tip. Fruits 1.7 - 2.5 cm long, globose, usually 5-winged to the base; wings glaucous, sparsely stellate-hairy; larger wings ca 10 - 12.5 x 2.5 cm, linear-ovate or spathulate, obtuse, 3-nerved, smaller wings 5 - 12 mm long, orbicular or ovate.

Fl. Jan. - March; Fr. May - June.

Distrib. India: In evergreen and semievergreen forests in low lying areas along the foot hills and valleys on fertile alluvial soils. Andaman & Nicobar Islands (Andaman Islands).

Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand and Indo-China.

Notes. Most elegantly proportioned evergreen tree, perhaps the tallest of the Indian Dipterocarpus species, the bole is smooth, light grey, cylindrical, sometimes well over 30 m in height. This species is easily recognised by its hoary foliage and more or less globose fruits with 5 straight or slightly undulate accrescent ridges on the calyx tube.

Wood used for construction work, floorings, panelling, for making packing cases, tea chests etc. The oleo-resin is used for making plasters and torches; as a substitute for copaiba and also applied externally to treat gonorrhea. Hot decoction of bark is used in the treatment of rheumatic complaints.

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