Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Dipterocarpus costatus Gaertn.f., Suppl:, Carp. 3: 50, t. 187. 1805. D. scaber Buch.-Ham. in Mem. Wern. Soc. 6: 300.1827; Dyer in Fl. Brit. India 1: 297. 1874. D. alatus auct. non Roxb. ex G. Don 1831; Dyer in Fl. Brit. India 1: 298, 1874, p.p

And.: Garjan; Beng.: Telia garjon, Sada garjan, Keshogarjan.

Trees, ca 20 -30 m tall; trunk ca 3 - 4 m in girth; bark rough, scaly, dark grey, rather thick; branchlets, leaf buds, midrib above, petioles, inflorescences, calyx and outer surface of corolla covered densely with yellowish brown indumentum of long, tawny hairs mixed with stellate hairs. Leaves of flowering shoots 5.6 - 12 x 4.3 - 8.7 cm, ovate, ovate-oblong or more or less broadly elliptic, cuneate or slightly cordate at base, acute or shortly abruptly acuminate at apex, obtuse, entire or repand, pilose on both surfaces; lateral nerves 10 - 15 pairs; petioles 1.5 - 4 cm long, flattened or slightly chanelled above, softly pubescent; stipules ca 5 cm long, shaggy yellow tomentose. Spikes axillary or terminal, 3 - 9-flowered, branched or unbranched, up to 7 cm long. Calyx campanulate, 5 ribs starting from between lobes and running down to the base, 2 - 3 mm long, rounded, two longer ones ca 1.2 cm long, linear-oblong, tube and lobes densely stellate-pilose. Corolla lobes 1.7 - 2.5 cm long, oblong, tomentose outside. Stamens 18 - 20, shorter than style at anthesis; filaments flattened at base; anthers 4 - 5 mm long, linear-lorate, connective produced into a 3 - 4 mm long bristle. Ovary ovoid, tapering into columnar style, ovary and basal half of style densely pubescent. Fruit belly ca 1.8 cm across, subglobose, longitudinally 5-ribbed, stellate-tomentose or slightly pilose; two longer calyx lobes 6.5 - 10 x 1.5 - 2.5 cm, linear-oblong, obtuse, 3-nerved to the middle or sometimes beyond the middle, three shorter lobes revolute, prominent.

Fl. Feb. - April; Fr. June.

Distrib. India: Occurs in mixed evergreen forests at 600 - 1000 m on steep hill slopes exposed to strong winds, but nowhere common. Andaman & Nicobar Islands (Anda-man Islands) and Tripura.

Myanmar, Thailand, Indo-China and Malaysia.

Notes. The round crown with smaller, more or less lighter and hairy foliage and the small (the smallest for the genus), globose fruits with 5 straight ridges on the calyx tube makes this species distinct.

Wood used in plywood industry, for general construction purposes and for makinl railway sleepers; also classified as an excellent fuel wood. Oleo-resin obtained &om tho wood is reported to be used in the treatment of ulcers.

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