Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Shorea Roxb. ex Gaertn. f.

Resinous trees; crown in mature trees large, hemispherical or dome-shaped; branchlets glabrous or pubescent. Leaves entire or repand, coriaceous; lateral veins subparallel; stipules large, coriaceous, persistent or small and caducous. Flowers secund, in axillary or terminal, lax, panicled cymes. Calyx tube very short, adnate to receptacle, lobes imbricate, free, three outer ones thicker, somewhat longer and narrower than two inner lobes, hairy. Petals 5, usually connate at base, sometimes free, hairy outside. Stamens 15 or 20 - 100; filaments applanate, more or less tapering; anthers subglobose, ovate or narrowly oblong, rarely linear, connective produced beyond anther, lobes in the form of hairs. Ovary 3-locular with 2 ovules in each, glabrous or tomentose; styles subulate with or without a distinct stylopodium; stigmas entire or 3-lobed. Fruit indehiscent, nut-like or capsule, rarely 2-valved and dehiscent, closely surrounded by persistent, accrescent calyx lobes, three outer lobes are usually longer and broader than two inner ones or rarely all developed into 10-veined, linear wings, base of calyx lobes thickened, expanded and saccate; nut usually solitary, 1-seeded, with large, fleshy cotyledons.

Widely distributed in India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Myanmar, throughout the mainland of S.E. Asia into Malay Peninsula, Indonesia and Philippines, ca 200 species; ca 4 in India.

Literature. As of family.


1a. Stamens usually 15; appendge of the connective long, filiform and naked; ovary mostly glabrous; stylopodium absent 2
b. Stamens 20 - 50; appendage of the connective usually ciliate, rarely eciliate, in the latter case thickened at base; ovary bairy, stylopodium present 3
2a. Young shoots, younger leaves and stipules usually glabrous; leaves elliptic-oblong, lateral nerves 12 - 16 pairs; calyx glabrous in flower, lobes ovate, acute; style as long as ovary 3. Shorea roxburghii
b. Young shoots, younger leaves and stipules softly tomentose; leaves oblong-lanceolate to ovate, lateral nerves 16 - 19 pairs; calyx pubescent in flower, lobes lanceolate; style longer than ovary 1. Shorea assamica
3a. Peduncle and rachis densely tomentose; lateral nerves of leaves 12 - 15 pairs; petioles up to 2.5 cm long; stamens 50; wings of fruit 6 - 8 times longer than capsule 2. Shorea robusta
b. Peduncle and rachis of the panicle hoary or nearly glabrous; lateral nerves of the leaves up to 12 pairs; petioles 2.5 - 5 cm long; stamens up to 30; wings of the fruit 2 - 3 times as long as the capsule 4. Shorea tumbuggaia

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