Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Herbs, annual or biennial or rarely short-lived perennial, more or less with stiff simple hairs; tap roots sometimes fleshy, fusiform; stems erect, branched. Leaves pinnatisect, lyrate, uppermost often simply toothed. Racemes corymbose, becoming lax in fruit, ebracteate. Flowers large, ebracteate, pedicellate. Sepals usually erect, oblong, the outer ones slightly hooded below the tips; inner ones a little broader, somewhat saccate at base. Petals oblanceolate or obovate, abruptly long-clawed, white, yellow or violet, reticulately veined. Stamens 6, filaments not appendaged. Ovary awl-shaped, transversely bipartite; the lower portions shorter than upper, 2 - 12-ovuled; stigma small, more or less bilobed. Fruits elongated, cylindric lomentum, biarticulated; lower portion very short, inconspicuous, stalk-like, usually empty, rarely 1 or 2-seeded, persistent; upper portion 1-many seeded, cylindrical and indehiscent or breaking into 1-seeded segments, sometimes curved or constricted between the seeds; beak long. Seeds pendulous from short funicle; cotyledons conduplicate.

Chiefly Euro-Siberian, Mediterranean and N.E. African regions; 8 species, 2 in India.


1a. Taproot not tuberous; fruits torulose, markedly constricted between seeds, breaking into 1-seeded parts 1. Raphanus raphanistrum
b. Taproot tuberous; fruits hardly constricted between seeds, not breaking into 1-seeded parts 2. Raphanus sativus

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