Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Annual or perennial herbs or undershrubs. Leaves ovate, rhomboid, obovoid, retuse or lanceolate, entire, rarely lobed or divided, palmi- or penninerved. Flowers axillary, solitary or in clusters by development of accessory buds or in racemes or panicles by reduction of upper leaves. Epicalyx absent. Calyx mostly campanulate, 5-lobed. Corolla yellow or yellowish white, rotate, connate at base and adnate to the staminal column. Staminal column shorter than petals, hairy or glabrous. Carpels 5 - 14, uniovulate; styles as many as carpels; stigmas capitate. Schizocarps globular to oblate, depressed; mericarps more or less trigonous, muticous or with two beaks or biaristate at apex, outer surface smooth or prominently reticulate, indehiscent or dehiscent along mid-dorsal line, rarely along inner margin or by withering of lateral or basal walls. Seeds ovoid-oblong to reniform, glabrous or hairy.

Tropics and subtropics of the World, ca 200 species; 12 in India.


1a. Mericarps 5 2
b. Mericarps 6 - 12 8
2a. Mericarps smooth, mucronate; seeds dispersed by withering of wall; leaves palminerved 3
b. Mericarps with prominent reticulation, awned; seeds dispersed by apical dehiscence; leaves penninerved 6
3a. Erect herbs or undershrubs; flowers in axillary or terminal racemes or panicles 4
b. Prostrate or diffuse herbs; flowers usually solitary or in few -flowered racemes 5
4a. Plants viscid with glandular hairs; staminal column glabrous 7. Sida mysorensis
b. Plants not viscid; staminal column pubescent 5. Sida elongata
5a. Stems never rooting at nodes; pedicels jointed near middle; mericarps glabrous 3. Sida cordata
b. Stems rooting at nodes; pedicels jointed near apex; mericarps hairy 6. Sida Javensis
6a. Leaves wedge-shaped, oblong, apex retuse with a small tooth let in the middle 10. Sida schimperiana
b. Leaves ovate, oblong or lanceolate, apex acute 7
7a. Stems with 1 - 2 spiny emergences at the base of petioles; mericarps with 2 divergent apical awns 11. Sida spinosa
b. Stems without any spiny emergence; mericarps with a pair of convergent apical awns 2. Sida alba
8a. Stipules of each pair dissimilar, one linear to lanceolate and other linear to filiform; leaves sparsely haity, soon glabrescent 1. Sida acuta
b. Stipules of each pair not dissimilar; leaves densely pubescent 9
9a. Mericarps dehiscent 10
b. Mericarps indehiscent 11
10a. Mericarps with 2 awns, awns retrorsely haity 4. Sida cordifolia
b. Mericarps with or without awns, awns never retrorsely hairy 9. Sida rhombifolia
11a. Schizocarps completely enclosed by calyces; calyx lobes 8 - 9 x 5 - 7 mm; mericarps with 2 outgrowths just below the awns 12. Sida tiagii
b. Schizocarps not completely enclosed by calyces; calyx lobes 5 - 7 x 3 - 5 mm; mericarps without outgrowths below the awns 8. Sida ovata

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