Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Herbs, erect, diffuse or procumbent, annual or perennial; joints swollen. Leaves opposite, petiolate, orbicular and palmately lobed or of triangular outline and divided to base into 3 or 5 pinnatifid segments. Peduncles 1 - 2-flowered, axillary, bracteate. Flowers bisexual, regular, usually5-merous. Sepals 5, free, ending in a short pointed tip. Petals 5, free, clawed, alternate with 5 nectariferous glands. Stamens (5-) 10,5 long and alternate with 5 short ones; staminodes occasional; filaments flattened, united at base. Receptacle prolonged upwards into a persistent 5-grooved tapering column. Carpels usually 5, adnate, separating septifragally from central axis. Fruits schizocarpic consisting of 5 mericarps which remain attached to an elastically coiling stylar axis upwards; mericarps without apical pits.

Mainly distributed in the N. Hemisphere but also in tropics; ca 400 species; 27 in India.


1a. Leaves divided to base; diacharaed mericarps plumed 21. Geranium robertianum
b. Leaves not divided quite to base; mericarps not plumed 2
2a. Ribs of sepals carinate and with transverse inter-connections 8. Geranium lucidum
b. Ribs of sepals neither carinate nor with transverse inter-connections 3
3a. Calyx without glandular hairs 4
b. Calyx with glandular hairs 8
4a. Sepals (including mucro) 5 - 6(-7) mm long; petals less than 10 mm long 5
b. Sepals (including mucro) 6.5 mm long, or more; pelals more than 11 mm long 6
5a. Leaf-segments narrow, rhomboid, acute; inflorescence more or less diffuse; peduncles usually 1-flowered; sepal-awn 1 - 2 mm long 24. Geranium sibiricum
b. Leaf-segments broad, rhomboid, obtuse-acute; infloreacence diffuse; peduncles usually 2-flowered; 11- sepal-awn less than 1 mm long 11. Geranium nepalense
6a. Peduncles 1-flowered 10. Geranium nakaoanum
b. Peduncles 2-flowered 7
7a. Leaf-division subtruncate; stipules free 5. Geranium donianum
b. Leaf-division acute or acuminate; stipules united in pairs 27. Geranium wallichianum
8a. Sepals (including mucro) less than 9 mm long 9
b. Sepals (including mucro) more than 10 mm long 18
9a. Leaf-divisions tapered distally; stigmas 3.5 - 4.5 mm long 16. Geranium procurrens
b. Leaf-divisions subtruncate; stigma less than 15 mm long 10
10a. Annuals 13
b. Perennials 11
11a. Rhizomes elongated; peduncles bearing clultera of flowers amongst uppermost involucre-like leaves 14. Geranium polyanthes
b. Rhizomes tuberous; peduncles not bearing clustera of flowers amongst uppermost leaves 12
12a. Plants 30 - 60 cm high; petals 13 - 15 mm long; filaments densely long-ciliate; beak: ca 2.5 cm long 26. Geranium tuberaria
b. Plants up to 25 cm high; petals 8 - 11 mm long; filamenls pubeacenl; beak ca 1.2 cm long 1. Geranium charlesii
13a. Petals with relatively larger black basal spot 12. Geranium ocellatum
b. Petals without basal spot 14
14a. Mericarps hairy, not extensively ribbed 15
b. Mericarp hairless, closely ribbed 17
15a. Mericarps transversely rugose, separating without a stylar beak 4. Geranium divaricatum
b. Mericarps not transversely rugose and with long stylar beak 16
16a. Leaves orbicular-reniform, crenate; seeeds prominently reticulate 22. Geranium rotundifolium
b. Leaves palmatifid or -partite into 3 - 7, seeds smooth 17. Geranium pusillum
17a. Petals 4 - 6 mm long 9. Geranium molle
b. Petals 14 - 16 mm long 20. Geranium regelii
18a. Sepals and petals slightly reflexed; petals 2 - 3 times as long as broad 19. Geranium refrectum
b. Sepals and petals subpatent; petals not more than 1 times as long as broad 19
19a. Stamens densely clothed with long white hairs; gynoecium blackish; stigmas ca 5 mm long 7. Geranium lambertii
b. Stamens with fine forwardly directed hairs; gynoecium pinkish; stigmas 2.5 - 4 mm long 20
20a. Stems erect or ascending; pedicels short, deflexed in fruits 21
b. Stems diffuse ascending; pedicels long, spreading 23
21a. Stems ascending; petals up to 28 mm long; ripe fruits 40 - 47 mm long 6. Geranium himalayense
b. Stems erect; petals not more than ca 20 mm long; ripe fruits not more than 38 mm long 22
22a. Inflorescence compact; pedices. shorter than calyx; flowers 3.5 - 4.5 cm across; immature fruits reflexed 15. Geranium pratense
b. Intloreacence lax with longer pedicels; flowers 4.2 - 4.8 cm across; immature fruits slightly nodding 2. Geranium clarkei
23a. Leaves much deeply dissected; segments narrow, 4 - 5 mm broad 13. Geranium pamiricum
b. Leaves not much deeply dissected; segments more than 5 mm broad 24
24a. Petal-base pubescent on adaxial surface 25. Geranium swatense
b. Petal-base ciliate 25
25a. Leaves orbicular-angled, 5 - 7-palmati-partite; sepal-awn 1 - 2 mm long; petals lilac-rose sometimes white; seeds ca 2.5 mm long 3. Geranium collinum
b. Leaves 5-angled; sepal-awn 2 - 4 mm long; petals pink; seeds ca 3 mm long 26
26a. Leaves membranous; stipules rarely 2-fid; pedicels and peduncles appressed pubescent(rarely sparse-glandular) 18. Geranium rectum
b. Leaves not membranous; stipules often 2-fid; pedicels and peduncles with stiff erect glandular hairs 23. Geranium rubifolium

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