Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Homonoia riparia Lour., Fl. Cochinch. 637. 1790; Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15(2): 1023. 1866; Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 5: 455. 1887.


Asm.: Hilhadam, Lari, Paniholos, Tabitasing, Tuipui-suhala; Hindi: Surra, Bersi; Kan.: Holenage, Nirganagile; Lep.: Mongthel-kung, Yetagyi; Mal.: Kaloor-vanchi, Kattalari; Mar.: Garahuru, Sarni, Sheran, Sherni; Nep.: Khola-ruis; Or.: Jambla; Sans.: Gurjor, Pashanabedaka, Sunukui; Tam.: Cheppunjerinjal, Kallalari; Tel.: Siridamani, Taniki.

Shrubs or small trees, 1 - 3 m tall; branches sparsely pubescent. Leaves linear-lanceolate, narrowly lanceolate to oblanceolate, cuneate or obtuse at base, subentire or wavy, denticulate or serrulate towards tip and glandular along margins, obtuse, narrowly acute or acuminate and long-mucronate or apiculate at apex, (6 -) 10 - 20 x 1 - 3 (- 4) cm, coriaceous, glabrous or finely pubescent above, papillose on both sides with scattered lepidote scales beneath; lateral nerves 9 - 15 (- 30) pairs; petioles 4 - 12 mm long, puberulous; stipules subulate, 4 - 8 mm long, caducous. Inflorescences 4 – 10 (- 15) cm long, axillary, bracteate, dense-flowered unisexual spikes. Male flowers: sessile, 5 - 6 mm across; bracts linear-lanceolate, ca 1 mm long; calyx lobes oblong-ovate, concave, 4 - 5 x ca 3 mm; stamens numerous; anthers with 2 subglobose divaricate locules, 0.3 - 0.5 mm across. Female flowers: sessile, 5 - 6 mm across; bracts linear-lanceolate, 4 - 5 mm long; bracteoles 2; calyx 5 - 8-lobed; lobes oblong-ovate, 2 - 4 x 1 - 2 mm, caducous; ovary globose, 3-loculed, 2 - 3 mm across, appressed white tomentellous; styles 3, connate at base, spreading and recurved at tip, 4 - 5 mm long, plumose, densely papillose. Fruits globose, angular, shallowly 3-lobed, (4 -) 5 - 6 mm across, smooth, reddish brown.

Fl. Dec. - May; Fr. May - Sept.

Distrib. India: Rheophytic, on stony and gravelly banks and beds of rivers and streams, on sand bars, etc., up to 1500 m altitude. Often totally or partially submerged in rainy season. Almost in all States, in the plains and low hilly regions.

Sri Lanka, Myanmar, China, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Thailand and throughout Malesia.

Uses. The root is laxative, diuretic and emetic. Decoction of root or powdered root mixed with honey or sugar given to cure piles, stone in bladder, chest pain, gonorrhoea and syphilis. Mashed leaves used as poultice against skin diseases.

Notes. Chromosome number: 2n = 22 (Bedi et al., Taxon 29: 353. 1980).





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