Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Firmiana Marsili

Trees. Leaves simple, entire or shallowly to deeply incised, ovate, often cordate, acute or shortly acumiante at apex, glabrous or stellate-hairy on the upper surface, often pubescent beneath; palmately nerved; petioles long. Flowers unisexual in coralliform pancicles, stellate-pubescent. Calyx tubular, toothed. Corolla absent. Androgynophore exserted after anthesis. Stamens 10, filaments attached to the sunken top of androgynophore. Ovaries 5, conglutinate, seperate and expand after anthesis, ovules 2 - 4 per ovary; styles short; stigmas curved outside. Male and female flowers differ only slightly in size and development of androecium or gynoecium. Fruits membranous follicles, opening before maturity, dispersed with adhering seeds. Seeds 2 - 4, ovoid, smooth, wrinkled when dry.

Tropical Asia and Pacific islands, ca 8 species; 2 in India.

Literature. KOSTERMANS, A.J.G.H. (1957). The genus Firmiana Marsili (Sterculiaceae). Reinwardtia 4: 281 - 310.


1a. Lower surface of the leaves glabrous; calyx tube inside and androgynophore sparsely pilose 1. Firmiana colorata
b. Lower surface of the leaves softly pilose; calyx tube inside and androgynophore glabrous 2. Firmiana fulgens

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