Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Macaranga peltata (Roxb.) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15(2): 1010. 1866. Osyris peltata Roxb., Fl. Ind., ed. Carey 3: 755. 1832. M. roxburghii Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient. 5(2): 23. 1852 & 6: t. 1949, f. 4. 1853; Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 5: 448. 1887. M. tomentosa Wight, l. c. 5(2): 23. 1852 & 6: t. 1949, f. 1. 1853.

Kan.: Chandakanne, Chandkal, Chenthakanni, Chinthakanni. Kanchupranti, Uppaligi; Mal.: Oothoni, Pattavani, Uppila, Uppoothi, Vatta; Mar.: Chanda, Chandora, Chandwar; Or.: Gondaguria, Painia; Tam.: Vatta, Vatikanni, Vattitutti; Tel.: Boddi, Kondajaphara, Kondatamara, Pulichin-jalamu.

Trees, (5- ) 8 - 15 m tall; branches ferruginous tomentose. Leaves deltoid, ovate, broadly ovate, rhombate-ovate to orbicular, rounded and peltate at base, entire or minutely glandulardenticulate along margins, subacute to acuminate at apex, 10 - 40 x 8 - 40 cm, chartaceous to thinly coriaceous, glabrous above, pale and gland-dotted with puberulous nerves beneath; basal nerves 9 - 11, palmate; lateral nerves 6 - 8 pairs; cross nervules parallel and prominent beneath; petioles 7 - 35 cm long; stipules ovate-lanceolate, 1 - 1.5 x ca 0.5 cm. Male flowers: ca 1.5 mm across, numerous, arranged in interrupted dense sessile 10 - 25-flowered heads on shortly branched 30 - 45 cm long axillary panicles of racemes; peduncles up to 15 cm long; bracts ovate, 3 - 6 x 4 - 7 mm, minutely glandular inside; bracteoles concave, foliaceous at base of flowering branches; sepals 3, obovate, 1 - 1.5 mm long; stamens 2 - 5, with free filaments and 4-loculed, 4-lobed anthers. Female flowers: in simple racemes, branched at base, 3 - 9 cm long, tomentose; bracts ovate, concave, denticulate along margins, 0.8 - 1 cm long, 1 or 2-flowered; pedicels 2 - 3 mm long; calyx-lobes 3, rounded, 2 - 3 mm long, densely glandular; ovary 1 - 2 mm across, glandular, 1-loculed; styles lateral, peltate, sessile, thickly papillose, 4 - 5 mm long. Fruits depressed-globose, 4 - 9 (- 12) mm across, grooved, echinate, hairy or nearly glabrous, with caducous waxy yellow resinous glands.

Fl. & Fr. Jan. - Dec. (Flowering in two peaks during Feb. - April and Sept. - Nov., but fruits can be seen throughout the year).

Distrib. India: Deciduous or evergreen forests along hills, roadsides, old forest clearings and secondary forests, up to 1000 m altitude; sometimes in beach forests, on sandy or clayey soil. Sikkim, West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Andaman & Nicobar Islands.

Sri Lanka and Myanmar.

Uses. The tree reproduces readily by seeds and makes rapid growth and hence suitable as pioneers in afforestation work.

A reddish gum, called ‘kino’ exudes from cut branches, base of petioles, young shoots and fruits, which is used as a substitute for gum-arabic. A paste of kino is used as application for venereal sores. A decoction of leaves and bark is used as a wash for ulcers.

The loppings of this tree used as green manure in paddy fields along West Coast. It is also useful as shade trees in coffee plantations. The leaves are rich in nitrogen and potassium.

The wood is suitable for matches and paper pulp.

Notes. The Megapode birds of Great Nicobar Island eat the fruits of this tree and a report in J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 102, 2005 says that the stomach of these birds is full of seeds of this tree.

Chromosome number: 2n = 22 (Mehra & Hans, Taxon 18: 310 - 315. 1969).

Pollen 3-colporate, sexine scabrate. P = 23ìm (20 to 28), E = 24 ìm (20 to 28). (Tissot, Chikki & Nayar, Pollen of Wet Evergreen Forests of Western Ghats, India. Publ. du depart. D’ecologie, Inst. Francias de Pondichery, Pondicherry).


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