Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Crateva adansonii DC. subsp. odora (Buch.- Ham.) Jacobs in Blumea 12: 198. 1964. C. odora Buch.-Ham. in Trans. Linn. Soc. 15: 118.1827. C. roxburghii R. Br. in Denh. & Clapp. Narr. Trav. Disc. Afr. App . 224. 1826. C. religiosa var. roxburghii (R. Br.) Hook. f. & Thomson in Fl. Brit. India 1:172. 1872. C. nurvala sensu Blatter in J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 35: 293. 1931, non Buch.- Ham.


Beng. & Hindi: Barun, Barna; Kan.: Nirvala; Nep.: Chiple; Mar.: Vaivarna, Wairoda; Tam.: Kudagai, Mavilandam; Tel.: Mugalinga, Muvva.

Trees, 3 - 10 m. Leaves subcoriaceous when drying, dull greyish green; petioles 7 - 10 (-12) cm, glandular at tip; leaflets 1.5 - 2 times as long as broad, ovate to elliptic- lanceolate; central leaflets up to 12 x 7 cm, with abruptly acuminate apex; lateral leaflets 6 - 8 x 3.5 - 5 cm with oblique and tapering base and acute apex; lateral nerves 4 - 6 pairs; petiolules 6 - 10 mm long. Corymbs 12 - 30-flowered, rachis 2 - 3 cm long, often growing through with a few axillary flowers. Flowers appearing before or with tender leaves, fragrant, 2.5 - 3.5 cm across; pedicels 3 - 7 cm long. Sepals petaloid, elliptic, acuminate, 3.5 - 5 x 1.5 - 2 cm. Petals initially greenish-white, turning to yellow and finally fading to pink; limb 9 - 18 x 5.5 - 10 mm; claw 3 - 6 mm long, equalling sepals. Stamens 15 - 26; filaments 3 - 4.5 cm, white, turning to lilac or purple; anthers black. Gynophore pinkish, 2.5 - 3.5 cm long; ovary ovoid or ellipsoid, ca 3 x 2 mm, often abortive; stigma small, knob-shaped. Fruits orange-yellow or reddish brown, globose, 2.5 - 4 x 2 cm; stipe 3 - 4 mm thick; seeds broadly ellipsoid, 5 - 6 x 2 mm, brown, smooth, embedded in yellow pulp.

Fl. Feb. - Apr.; Fr. May - Nov.

Distrib. India: In open forests or scrub jungles, from sea level to 750 m. Throughout India (except in the humid hill states of N.E. India and Kashmir).

Pakistan, Myanmar and Sri Lanka.

Notes. Wood used for agricultural implements, toys and planks. Fresh leaves and bark efficaceous in treating rheumatic and urinary complaints besides as poultices for fomentation. Fruits edible when cooked. Bark demulcent, antipyretic. Bark crushed and the filtrate administered to increase lactation by Chenchus and Lambadis of Andhra Pradesh. Bark extract with pepper used to cure chest pain and menstrual disorders by Konda-reddis of Andhra Pradesh.

The diploid chromosome number is 2n = 26 (Raghavan & Venkatasubban in Cytologia 11: 319.1936)

C. religiosa sensu Dunn (in Gamble's Fl. Pres. Madras 1: 47. 1915) partly reflects subsp.odora and partly C. magna, both common in peninsular India. The coloured plate by Blatter (in J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 35: t.14.1931) depicts subsp. odora but the text figers of leaves refer to C. magna.

This plant does not occur in Assam or Meghalaya due to the heavy rains. The reference to "C. roxburghii R. Br." by Kanjilal et al. (Fl. Assam 1: 73 - 74. 1934) applies to C. unilocularis Buch. - Ham.

For detailed discussions on reasons for rejecting the earlier name C. roxburghii R. Br. (1826) in favour of the next epithet C. odora Buch.-Ham. (1827), see Jacobs, l. c. 197 - 198. 1964.




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