Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Herbs or undershrubs, rarely small trees. Leaves alternate or rarely subopposite to opposite, mostly sessile, herbaceous or sometimes leathery; stipules small, persistent or mostly caducous. Flowers bisexual, irregular, rarely cleistogamous, white to orange or purple, solitary in leaf-axils, or in more or less reduced axillary cymes or dichasia or in raceme-like elongated monochasia, rarely in a terminal leafy panicle; pedicels articulate, 2-bracteolate below articulation. Sepals subequal, more or less triangular, persistent, rarely the margins with deep incisions. Petals unequal, persistent; posterior ones small and straight, middle ones longer and falcate; anterior one extended to a lip with a claw, more or less deeply saccate to shortly spurred. Filaments free or partly coherent; anthers free or more or less united, 2 or (4) of them gibbous or spurred; connective prolonged into a distinct membranous appendage. Ovary ovoid, with 3 placentae bearing 3 - 24 ovules; style clavate, incurved; stigma oblique. Capsules elastically 3-valved, subglobose; valves leathery; seeds few, ellipsoid, mostly with a small caruncula.

America, Africa, Asia and Australia in tropical and subtropical regions; about 150 species, 2 in India.

Literature. BAHADUR, B. et al. (1987) Floral biology of Hybanthus enneaspermus (L.) F. v. Muell (Violaceae). New Bot. 14: 29 - 45, f. 42. BENNETT, E. M. (1972) A revision of the Australian species of Hybanthus Jacquin (Violaceae). Nuytsia 1: 218 - 241. GREY-WILSON, C. (1981) Notes on African Violaceae. Kew Bull. 36(1): 103 - 126, ff. 1 - 7.


1a. Herbs with red flowers; sepals keeled; capsules ca 5 mm long; seeds conspicuously longitudinally ribbed 1. Hybanthus enneaspermus
b. Shrubs with pink flowers; sepals not keeled; capsules ca 10 mm long; seeds obscurely ribbed 2. Hybanthus travancoricus

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