Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Small trees, shrubs or climbers, stellate-pubescent. Leaves alternate, stipulate, petiolate, serrate, dentate or entire along margins, sometimes lobed, somewhat coriaceous. Inflorescences axillary, leaf-opposed or terminal solitary or clustered, pedunculate, umbellate cymes or panicles. Flowers bracteate, pedicellate, bisexual 5-merous. Sepals 5, free, valvate, coriaceous, usually coloured, mostly glabrous inside. Petals 5, free, much shorter, clawed with a gland inside, rarely absent. Receptacle raised or not, densely pubescent. Stamens numerous, free, inserted on more or less elevated receptacle or androphore; anthers dorsifixed, dorsally curved, dehiscing longitudinally. Ovary superior, on top of androphore, 2 - 4-loculed with 2 or more superposed ovules in each locue; style subulate; stigma 2 - 4-lobed or penicillate. Drupes entire or 2 - 4-lobed,fleshy or fibrous with 1 - 4 pyrenes; each stone 1- or 2-seeded. Seeds suberect or horizontal, endospermous; embryo straight.

ca 150 species in the tropics and subtropics, rare in temperate regions; 31 in India.

Notes. Common in deciduous and evergreen forests.

Literature. NARAYANASWAMI, V. & R.S. RAO (1950). A preliminary note on the Indo-Burmese species of Grewia Linn. J. Indian Bot. Soc. 29: 177 - 190.


1a. Flowers solitary 14. Grewia indandamanica
b. Flowers many in panicles or cymes 2
2a. Inflorescences paniculate, terminal and/or axillary 3
b. Inflorescences cymse, terminal or leaf-opposed (rarely terminal in G. umbellifera and G. rhamnifolia) 4
3a. Leaves subentire or serrulate; petals white or yellow; drupes globose, 8 - 10 mm across, purple 16. Grewia nervosa
b. Leaves entire; petals pink; drupes obovoid, 1.3 - 2 .3 cm across, orange-yellow 5. Grewia calophylla
4a. Peduncles capillary, 1 - 2-flowered 28. Grewia tenax
b. Peduncles not capillary, 3 - many-flowered 5
5a. Peduncles much shorter than or as long as petioles 6
b. Peduncles much longer than petioles 10
6a. Flower buds more than 1 cm long 7
b. Flower buds less than 0.8 cm long 8
7a. Leaves oblong, ovate-oblong or ovate-elliptic; petals yellow 9. Grewia flavescens
b. Leaves rotund-ovate, obovate or obcordate; petals white 26. Grewia scleropbylla
8a. Stipules auriculate 29. Grewia tiliifolia
b. Stipules not auriculate 9
9a. Leaves rounded to abruptly acuminate at apex, villous beneath; flower buds ellipsoid 31. Grewia villosa
b. Leaves acute to acuminate at apex, scabrous above; flower buds ovoid or oblong 1. Grewia abutilifolia
10a. Leaves 5 - 7-nerved (3 - 5-nerved in G. pandaika) 11
b. Leaves3(-4)-nerved 15
11a. Stipules auriculate 12
b. Stipules linear or lanceolate 13
12a. Leaves regularly crenate; petioles more than 6 mm long 3. Grewia asiatica
b. Leaves coarsely double-serrate; petioles up to 6 mm long 25. Grewia sapida
13a. Leaves orbicular, broadly elliptic or obovate, finely grey tomentose beneath 19. Grewia orbiculata
b. Leaves ovate, ovate-oblong, elliptic, elliptic-oblong or lanceolate, pubescent beneath 14
14a Leaves coarsely crenate, 3 - 5-nerved; flower buds ovoid-oblong 21. Grewia pandaica
b. Leaves crenate-serrate, 5 - 6-nerved; flower buds globose to ovoid 8. Grewia eriocarpa
15a. Leaves glaucous beneath 16
b. Leaves not glaucous beneath 17
16a Peduncles slender, more than 1.5 cm long; drupes not lobed 24. Grewia rothii
b. Peduncles stout, up to 1.5 cm long; drupes 2-lobed 6. Grewia damine
17a. Plants with bisexual and unisexual flowers 18
b. Planis with bisexual flowers only 19
18a. Leaves oblique; stamens more than 40; drupes densely hirsute or hispid 13. Grewia hirsuta
b. Leaves not oblique; stamens 16 - 20; drupes sparsely hirsute or glabrescent 11. Grewia helicterifolia
19a. Leaves rhomboid or rhomboid-obovate, less than 1.5 cm broad 22. Grewia piscatorum
b. Leaves neither rhomboid nor rhomboid-ovate, more than 1.5 cm broad 20
20a. Leaves glabrous or glabrescent 21
b. Leaves scabrid, pubescent or tomentose 27
21a. Inflorescences axillary 22
b. Inflorescences axillary or terminal 26
22a. Drupes glabrescent when mature 23
b. Drupes pilose, tomentose or bristly when mature 24
23a. Leaves crenate-serrate; drupes obscurely 4-lobed or not 2. Grewia acuminata
b. Leaves sharply serrate; drupes 2-lobed 27. Grewia serrulata
24a. Flower buds ovoid or ovoid-oblong; petals reflexed; drupes rusty pubescent 4. Grewia bracteata
b. Flower buds conical or cylindric; petals not reflexed; drupes bristly or pilose 25
25a. Leaves obliquely cordate at base; sepals oblong; drupes bristly 20. Grewia orientalis
b. Leaves narrowed at base; sepals linear-lanceolate; drupes pilose 15. Grewia lanceaefolia
26a. Climbing shrubs; peduncles up to 3 cm long; drupes purple, subglabrous 30. Grewia umbellifera
b. Erect shrubs; peduncles up to 1.5 cm long; drupes yellow, brown-tomentose 23. Grewia rhamnifolia
27a. Peduncles solitary 18. Grewia optiva
b. Peduncles more than one 28
28a. Petals emalginate at apex 17. Grewia oppositifolia
b. Petals acute to obtuse at apex 29
29a. Peduncles more than 2.5 cm long; drupes glabrescent 12. Grewia heterotricha
b. Peduncles up to 2.5 cm long; drupes hispid or pubescent 30
30a. Petals ovate, ca 5 mm long; drupes 2-lobed 7. Grewia denticulata
b. Petals oblong-lanceolate, ca 8 mm long; drupes 4-lobed 10. Grewia gamblei

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