Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Viola philippica Cav., Icon. Descr. 6: 19. 1801; W. Becker in Engler, Bot. Jahrb. 54 (Beibl.120): 174. 1917.

Herbs, perennial, acaulescent; rootstock articulated, bearing rosette of leaves and flowers at apex. Leaves ovate-elliptic, ovate-oblong to triangular-hastate or orbicular. subtruncate to shallowly cordate at base and usually long-decurrent on petiole, obtuse or rounded at apex, crenate-serrate, 1 - 4 x 0.5 - 3 cm, glabrous or puberulent beneath; petioles 1 - 6 cm long; stipules ovate-lanceolate, acute, up to 1 cm long, shortly dentate, adnate to petiole up to or slightly above the middle. Peduncles 5 - 8 cm long, much exceeding leaves, bibracteolate at middle. Flowers 1 - 1.5 cm across, pale to dark violet. Sepals ovate to ovate-lanceolate, acute, 3 - 5 mm long. Petals obovate, up to 1.5 cm long; spur tapering and curved downwards, 3 - 5 mm long. Style geniculate at base, clavate distally; stigma of 3 partially fused lobes with anterior beak. Capsules ellipsoid-oblong, 5 - 10 mm long, glabrous.

Fl. & Fr. Oct. - July, often extending throughout the year.

Distrib. India: Grasslands, 300 - 1800 m. Uttar Pradesh and Manipur.

Myanmar, Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia, China and Eastern Asia.

Notes. An examination of type materials of V. philippica subsp. munda and subsp. munda var. garhwalensis reveals that they can be considered synonymous with subsp. philippica.

Chromosome number reported: 2n = 12 (Kishore in Ind. J. Genet. & Pl. Breed. 11: 217. 1951).

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