Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Shrubs, undershrubs or herbs stellate-hairy. Leaves simple, alternate, petiolate, entire or 3 - 5-lobed, serrate, basal serrations mostly glandular; stipules persistent, rarely fugaceous. Inflorescences axillary or leaf-opposed, dense fascicles of 3-flowered dichasia. Flowers pedicellate, 5-merous, bisexual or female. Sepals 5, free, often hooded, valvate. Petals 5, free, mostly ciliate and pitted-glandular at base, rarely petals absent. stamens many, or rarely twice as many as sepals, free, inserted above 5-angular receptacle; anthers dehiscing lengthwise. Carpels 2 - 5, syncarpous; ovary usually with uncinate hairs, 2 - 5-loculed; locules 2-ovuled; style filiform; stigma 2 - 5-lobed. Capsules indehiscent or separating into cocci, echinate or setose, rarely tuberculate all over, bristles often hooked at apex, 2 - 5-loculed; locules 1- or 2-seeded. Seeds ovoid to obovoid, endospermous; embryo straight; cotyledons flat, foliaceous.

Tropical and subtropical regions of the world; 160 species; 8 in India.


1a. Woody creepers 5. Triumfetta repens
b. Erect shrubs, undershrubs or herbs 2
2a. Stems glabrous except for an alternating line of hairs on internodes; capsules and spines on capsules glabrous 1. Triumfetta annua
b. Stems hairy all around; capsules pubescent or tomentose; spines on capsules glabrous or hairy 3
3a. Spines glabrous 6. Triumfetta rhomboidea
b. Spines pubescent or tomentose 4
4a. Spines straight 5
b. Spines uncinate 6
5a. Leaves ovate-oblong; stamens 10 - 12; capsules more than 10 mm across 2. Triumfetta obliqua
b. Leaves ovate-lanceolate to orbicular; stamens 5 - 7; capsules less than 10 mm across 8. Triumfetta tomentosa
6a. Capsules more than 6 mm across 4. Triumfetta pilosa
b. Capsules up to 5 mm across 7
7a. Lower leaves rhomboid-ovate, 3-lobed or entire; stamens 5 - 10; spines with a line of hairs 3. Triumretta pentandra
b. Leaves obovate to orbicular; stamens 10 - 25; spines pubescent all over 7. Triumfetta rotundifolia

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