Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

JSP Page
Viola tricolor L., Sp. Pl. 935. 1753; Hook. f. & Thomson in Fl. Brit. India 1: 182. 1872, in obs.


Herbs, annual, biennial or perennial, glabrous to puberulous, up to 80 cm high; stem erect, diffusely branched from base. Leaves variable, ovate-lanceolate, 1.5 - 4 x 0.5 - 1.5 cm; basal leaves ovate, subcordate, those of the stem becoming ovate-spathulate obovate-oblong, or lanceolate, broadly crenate-dentate, obtuse; petioles 1 - 2.5 cm long, often Winged above; stipules lanceolate, deeply pinnately lobed, foliaceous, up to 2.5 cm long. Flowers up to 4.5 cm across, smaller in feral forms, multicoloured or a mixture of yellow, blue, purple and violet; peduncles 3 - 10 cm long, exceeding leaves. Sepals linear-lanceolate, subulatc, mucronate, 7 - 15 x 2 - 5 mm. Petals orbicular-obovate, 1 - 2 times as long as broaa; lateral ones bearded at base; spur 5 - 8 mm long, straight, obtuse. Style geniculate at base, clavate distally, ca 2 mm long; stigma laterally beaked, hairy. Capsules ellipsoid or ovoid, acute, 8 - 12 mm long.

Fl. Nov. - May; Fr. April - June.

Distrib. Cultivated in India as an ornamental plant with a number of horticultural varieties, rarely as an escape from cultivation.

Asia, Europe, America and Australia.

Notes. Plants medicinal, used in rheumatism and in skin diseases; roots used as a substitute for Ipecacuanha.

Chromosome number reported: 2n = 26 (Love & Love in Acta Hort. Gothob. 20: 65 - 291. 1956, Clausen et ale in Rhodora 66: 32 - 46. 1964, Mukherjee & Khoshoo in Nucleus 12: 178 - 186. 1969); 2n = 42, 46 (Chatterjee & Sharma in J. Genet. 61: 52 - 63. 1973).

Pollen grains various in size, oblately flattened, about 85 x 63 u with furrows, more or less equally spaced around equator and nearly or quite meridionally arranged. Furrow long and tapering to pointed ends, furrow membrane flecked. Germpore irregular in outline but tending to be circular. Texture finely granular (Wodehouse, R. P. in Pollen Grains, New York 442 - 444. 1959).




JSP Page
  • Search