Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Trees, deciduous, with simple or stellate hairs and large, obtuse buds. Leaves alternate, petiolate, entire, obliquely cordate or truncate at base, serrate or denticulate. Flowers in axillary or terminal cymes, fragrant, basal half of peduncle adnate to a large, membranous bract. Sepals 5, free, caducous. Petals 5, free, yellowish or whitish. Stamens many, free or in 5, antipetalous fascicles; staminodes sometimes present. Carpels 5, syncarpous; ovary 5-loculed; locules 2-ovuled; style slender; stigma 5-lobed. Fruits obovoid, indehiscent, nut-like, often 3 - 5-ribbed, pubescent, 1-loculed, 1 - 3-seeded.

North temperate regions, southern North America as far as the highlands of Mexico; ca 80 species; 3 introduced in India.


1a. Fruits strongly ribbed 2. Tilia platyphyllos
b. Fruits smooth or faintly ribbed 2
2a. Tertiary nerves of leaves prominent; cymes pendulous 3. Tilia x vulgaris
b. Tertiary nerves of leaves not prominent; cymes obliquely erect 1. Tilia cordata

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