Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Flacourtia L' Herit.

Trees or shrubs; trunk often armed with simple and branched thorns; branches usually with axillary thorns when young, at length unarmed. Leaves alternate, crenato-serrate or entire, pinnately veined, sometimes also 3 - 5-pliveined at base; secondary veins upcurved, diminishing near margin, joining superadjacent veins by a series of cross-veins and giving rise to lateral branches, each to end in a gland beneath the teeth or at margins; stipules absent. Flowers unisexual (plants dioecious), rarely bisexual in axillary or terminal short bracteate racemes or racemose fascicles; pedicels articulated. sepals 4 - 5, imbricate, subpersistent. Petal absent. Disc extrastaminal, usually consisting of distinct glands inserted before sepals, and annular or lobed in female. Male flowers: Stamens numerous; anthers oblong or globular, usually dorsifixed and versatile; pollen tricolporate, reticulate, subprolate. Pistillode absent. Female flowers: Carpels (2-) 3 - 6 (-10), connate into as many incompletely loculed ovary with deeply intruding placentae; ovules usualy 2 in each locule inserted on dividing walls. Styles free or connate, rarely absent; stigma retuse or shortly bilobed. Fruit fleshy, an indehiscent berry with indurate endocarp, globose when fresh, characteristically becoming obtusely cubiform-angular and constricted in middle when dry with 2 superposed pyrenes in each locule. Seeds 1 - 2, ovoid to obovoid; testa thinly coriaceous; cotyledons orbicular.

Tropical Africa, Asia and Polynesia; ca 15 species, 5 in India.


1a. Leaves 15 cm or more long, pinnately veined from base; secondary veins 10 - 12 pairs 1. Flacourtia helferi
b. Leaves mostly less than 15 cm long, 3 - 5-pliveined from or near base; basal primary and secondary veins together 4 - 6 pairs 2
2a. Inflorescence glabrous; style fully connate into a distinct column with shallowly lobed stigma at apex, contracted into a solid beak in fruit, with radiating stigmas as minute points 3. Flacourtia jangomas
b. Inflorescence usually pubescent; styles completely free or basally connate, conspicuously spreading and recurved both in flowers and fruits, or absent 3
3a. Styles absent (stigma sessile) 4. Flacourtia latifolia
b. Style distinct and conspicuous 4
4a. Leaves 8 - 15 (- 25) cm long, short or long acuminate at apex, coriaceous or subcoriaceous turning reddish brown on drying 5. Flacourtia montana
b. Leaves 1.5 - 5 (-7) cm long, not acuminate at apex, membranous to subcoriaceous, not reddish brown on drying 2. Flacourtia indica

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