Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Hydnocarpus alpina Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Or. t. 942. 1845; Hook. f. & Thomson in Fl. Brit. India 1: 197. 1872.

Kan.: Sanusotti,Torathi; Mal.: Mala-maravetti, Mala-marotti; Mar.: Kastel; Tam.: Attuchankalai.

Trees, 10 - 30 m tall, evergreen, buttressed when old; trunk ca 30 cm in diam.; outer bark cream-coloured; inner bark pinkish cream, ca 1 cm thick; twigs glabrous. Leaves variable, usually ovate-lanceolate, sometimes elliptic, ovate-oblong, or broadly ovate, cuneate or even subrotund and inequilateral at base, obtusely long or short acuminate at apex, entire, 6 - 25 x 2 - 9 cm, reddish when young, turns dark green with age; secondary veins 7 - 8 pairs; petioles 7 - 15 mm long. Male flowers 1.5 - 2 cm across, greenish white, few in 2 - 4 cymose fascicles on axillary 5 - 8 mm long ferruginous tomentose peduncles; pedicels up to 2 cm long, ferruginous tomentose. Sepals connate at base, ovate or elliptic-oblong, obtuse at apex; reflexed at anthesis, ca 7 x 4 mm, densely ferruginous tomentose. Petals oblong-lanceolate, concave with involute margins, reflexed at anthesis, 10 - 12 mm long, glabrous; epipetalous scales ca 2 mm shorter than petals, subulate, softly white pilose along margin. Stamens 4 - 5; filaments ca 2.5 mm long, shorter than petals. Ovary rudimentary, densely pilose. Female flowers solitary, axillary, rarely binate. Staminodes 5, linear-oblong, obtuse, appressed to ovary. Ovary ovoid- ellipsoid, faintly 5-angular, beaked at apex, densely yellowish white tomentose; stigmas 5, appressed to ovary. Berries ovoid-globose or globose, 5 - 7 cm across; pericarp woody, brownish tomentose. Seeds 10 - 12, embedded in white pulp, ellipsoid or subglobose, irregularly compressed, 1.5 - 2 x 1.3 - 1.7 cm; testa hard.

Fl. Feb. - April (July, Aug., Oct.) probably throughout the year in flashes; fruiting afterwards.

Distrib. India: Evergreen forests of S. Western Ghats up to 2000 m. Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.



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