Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Hydnocarpus kurzii (King) Warb. in Engler & Pranti Pflanzenfam. 3, 60: 21. f. M-N. (fig. erroneo sub Gynocardia odorata). 1893; Kanjilal et al., Fl. Assam 1: 87. 1934. Tarktogenos kurzii King in J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 59(2): 123. 1890.

Ass.: Lantem; Beng.: Chaulamugra, Dalmungri; Garo: Bilibu; Kh.: Dieng-sohlap; Lus.: Matta; Man.: Chalmugra, Uthou; Nep.: Bandre; Tipp.: Matta.

Trees, 10 - 20 (-30) m tall, with narrow crown and hanging branches; bark plain grey, brown or almost black outside, often with white patches, yellow or yellowish brown inside; branchlets tawny tomentose, soon glabrescent. Leaves bifarious, variable, lanceolate, oblong-lanceolate, elliptic-oblong, obovate-oblong or even elliptic, usually cuneate, rarely rounded and somewhat inequilateral at base, obtusely short or abruptly long acuminate, or even obtuse at apex, entire, 9 - 25 (-30) x 3 - 7 (-10) cm, membranous and minutely appressed pubescent when young, soon glabrescent; secondary veins 7 - 9 pairs; petioles swollen and slightly geniculate at upper end, 1 - 3 cm long. Male flowers 8 - 12 mm across, pale yellow, 3 - 5 each in two compact fascicles atop a common peduncle 7 - 15 mm long; peduncles 2 - 3 mm long, pedicels 7 - 10 mm long, all strigosely fulvous tomentose. Sepals ovate-orbicular, concave, ca 5 x 4 mm, fulvous tomentose. Petals broadly ovate to ovate-orbicular, cuneate at base, ciliate along margins, ca 4 mm long; epipetalous scales obovate, densely white pilose at apex. Stamens (15-) 20 - 30; filaments ca 4 mm long, densely pilose. Female flowers 2 - 5 in a compact fascicle atop a ca 5 mm long peduncle, rarely solitary by abortion; pedicels ca 12 mm long, strigosely fulvous tomentose. Sepals and petals often fewer than in male flowers. Staminodes 10 - 16. Ovary ovoid, obscurely 6 - 7-ribbed densely fulvous tomentose, with 4 parietal placentae; stigmas 4. Berries globose somewhat protruded at apex, 8 - l0 cm across; pericarp reddish brown, velvety tomentose, afterwards scurfy. Seeds 12 - 18, tightly packed in fruit, angular-ovoid, 2.2 - 3.2 x 1.6 - 2 cm.

Fl. Feb. - April (Nov.), probably throughout the year in flashes; fruiting afterwards.

Distrib. India: Evergreen rain forests. Upper Assam, Manipur, Mizoram and Tripura.

Bangladesh and Myanmar.

Notes. The seeds of this tree yield the proper Chaulmugra oil, much used for all cutaneous complaints.

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