Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, Dagb. Ostind. Resa 41. 1775: Swingle in Citrus Ind. 1: 379. 1967 C. urantium L. var. sinensis L., sp. Pl. 782. 1753.

Beng., Guj., Hindi, Mar.: Kamala nembu, Musambi, Narungi; Kan.: Kittile, Sathagudi; Kh.: Soh-niungriang; Punj.: Malta Orange; Tam.: Sathagudi, Chini; Tel.: Battavinarinja, Buddasini, Satghudi, Sini. The sweet orange.

Medium-sized trees; branchlets angular when young, spinous. Leaves unifoliolate; petioles ca 2 cm long, narrowly winged; wings oblong-spathulate, ca 3 mm broad on either side; leaflet blades ovate to elliptic, cuneate at base, emarginate at apex, obtusely crenate along margin, 7 - 10.5 x 3.5 - 5 cm. Inflorescences axillary, racemose (5 7-flowered) or of a solitary flower; pedicels 7 - 12 mm long, glabrescent. Flowers bisexual. Calyx 4- or 5-lobed; sepals suborbicular, acuminate, membranous, ciliolate, glandular. Stamens 19 - 25; filaments polyadelphous, unequal in length; anthers linear-oblong, obtuse, cordate below. Disk annular, ca 2.5 mm broad. Ovary globose; style cylindric, white; stigma capitate. Fruits medium-sized, subglobose to oblate; surface smooth, pitted, glossy, greenish-yellow to orange; pericarp thin, adherent; mesocarp white, mildly sweet; centre usually solid; endocarp segments 10 - 13; pulp-vesicles yellow to orange-coloured, stalked, fusiform, cuneate-obovoid, acute at tip, narrowed at apex with rough marginate plane surface, white when cut.

Distrib. Probably a native of N. E. India or S. China and Indochina. Cultivated in India.

Notes. C. sinensis (sweet orange) is the well known and most esteemed Citrus of the world. The fruits are a rich source of antiscorbutic vitamin.

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