Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Clausena kanpurensis J.P. Molino in Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris) 16: 117. f. 2, 8 - 9. 1994. Amyris pentaphylla Roxb., Pl. Ind. ed. 2: 247. 1832. Clausena pentaphylla auct. non DC. 1824: Hook. f., Fl. Brit. india 1: 503. 1875.


Hindi: Ratanjote, Rowana, Surjmukha, Teyrer, Tharu.

Undershrubs, deciduous, up to 2 m high, strongly aromatic, innovations silky-tomentose; branchlets cylindric, dense puberulous to tomentose; bark lenticellate. Leaves up to 40 cm long; petiole and rachis down-pubescent; leaflets 5 - 7 or sometimes 3, rarely also 1 on the same branchlet, alternate or subopposite, ovate-lanceolate, 7 - 20 x 2.5 - 7.5 cm, cuneate and more or less oblique at base, acuminate at apex, entire or obscurely crenate and often glandular-pubescent along margins, membranous, densely puberulent to downy-pubescent on both surfaces; petioles short (5 mm long), pubescent; secondary nerves 8 - 14 pairs, prominent, arising at angles, 60 - 65° with the midnerve, anastamosing. Inflorescences terminal and axillary (from uppermost leaf axil), up to 25 cm long; peduncle stout, dichotomously branched, downy-pubescent. Flowers subglobose in buds, 4-merous; bracts minute; pedicels to 2 mm long, pubescent. Calyx 4-lobed, lobes deltate to ovate, acute, ca 1.5 mm long, glandular, pubescent externally, glabrous internally. Petals imbricate, oblong or elliptic, obtuse, ca 4.5 x 2.5 mm, yellowish, indistinctly nerved, hairy on both surfaces. Stamens 8; filaments subulate above, dilated below, ca 3.5 mm long; anthers dorsifixed, oblong, sometimes apiculate. Disk annular, ca 0.5 mm high, as broad as ovary, with minute projections which often end in oil glands. Ovary subglobose or ovoid, ca 1 x 0.8 mm, glandular, pilose, 4-locular, each with 2 superposed ovules; style short, thick, 4-angular, ca 1 mm long, ca 3.5 mm broad, not clearly demarcated from ovary; stigma capitate. Berries ovoid, ca 15 mm across, orange-coloured when ripe, rind papillate-glandular; seed single, ovoid, ca 7 mm across, smooth, aromatic.

Fl. March-April; Fr. Ripening in August.

Distrib. India: Moist deciduous forests (sal forests) of the Garhwal Himalayas in Uttar Pradesh, at moderate elevations.

Nepal.

Notes. Stem-bark of the plant is highly valued in veterinary medicine. The powdered bark boiled in oil is a good remedy for bruises, abrasions, and sprains of ligaments.

This species was known earlier as Clausena pentaphylla (Roxb.) DC. as Oliver (1861) followed by many other Botanists including J.D. Hooker (1875), Tanaka (1928- 37) and Swingle and Reece (1967) mistakenly believed it to be a new combination based on Amyris pentaphylla Roxb. However, it is not true; Clausena pentaphylla DC. (Prodr. 1: 538. 1824) is evidently not a new combination because De Candolle did not give any direct or indirect reference leading to Roxburgh's Amyris pentaphylla in the protologue. According to Molino (1994) C. pentaphylla DC. is a new species created by De Candolle, which however, not belong either to Clausena or even the Rutaceae family. Molino, therefore, proposed C. kanpurensis as a new name to include Roxburgh's Amyris pentaphylla.




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