Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Clausena heptaphylla (Roxb.) Wight & Arn. ex Steudel, Nomencl. Bot. ed. 2,1: 377. 1840; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 1: 504. 1875. Amyris heptaphylla Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2: 248. 1831.


Beng.: Karan phal, Pan-kafur.

Undershrubs to small trees, up to 6 m high. Leaves up to 45 cm long; petiole and rachis cylindric or rarely in young leaves obscurely marginate between internodes, puberulous; leaflets 9 - 11, subopposite and alternate, lower ones smaller, 6.5 - 11.5 x 3.5 - 4.5 cm, terminal one often largest (11 - 15(-19) x 3.5 - 5(-6.5) cm), ovate to obiong-lanceolate or elliptic-oblong, asymmetric, cuneate at base, acuminate at apex, acumen 5 - 15 mm long, undulate or obscurely crenate along margins with uniseriate glands throughout, membranous to chartaceous, dark green and glossy above, light green beneath, profusely gland-dotted, glands dimorphic appearing as white dots above greenish beneath, glabrous except the puberulent midnerve above; petioles ca 5 mm long, slightly marginate, secondary nerves 5 - 11 pairs, impressed above, raised beneath, spreading, inarching near margins, tertiaries reticulate. Inflorescences terminal and axillary (from uppermost leaf axils), corymbose, paniculate cymes, up to 25 cm mm long; peduncle and branches densely puberulent. Flowers ca 5 mm long; pedicels short (ca 3), mm long), glabrous. Sepals 4(5), deltate, acute, often with a terminal gland, ca 1 mm long, ciliolate. Petals imbricate, oblong, rarely suborbicular, obtuse or rounded, concave, 3 - 3.5 x 1 - 1.5 mm, greenish-yellow, pellucid-punctate, glabrous. Stamens 8, subequal in length; filaments subulate above, dilated below, ca 2 mm long, glabrous; anthers oblong or rhombohedral, ca 1 mm long, yellow, occasionally with a terminal gland at tip of connective. Gynophore distinct, hourglass-shaped, as broad as ovary above, joining at base of ovary, narrowed below, ca 1 mm long, glabrous. Ovary cylindric, ovoid or tetragonal, sulcate, 4-lobed, 4-locular, each with 2 superimposed ovules. glandular, often with a medium sized gland at top of each locule; style as long as or longer than ovary, cylindric, sunken in depression of ovarian lobes, glabrous; stigma truncate, as broad as style. Berries oblong or ovoid, 10 - 15 mm long, yellowish or red; seeds 1 or 2, strongly aromatic.

Fl. March-April; Fr. May-Aug.

Distrib. India: Evergreen forests of Himalayas and North East India at altitudes up to 1500 m; rarely also occurring in the Eastern Ghats of Orissa; south of Orissa it is replaced by C. austroindica. Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland, Mizaram, Meghalaya, Tripura and Orissa.

Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, N. & S. Vietnam, Java and Sumatra.

Notes. Fresh leaves of this plant are chewed with betle leaves; they are also reported to be used for flavouring tobacco.





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