Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Tetradium fraxinifolium (Hook.) T. G. Hartley in Gard. Bull. Straites Settlem. 34: 102. 1981. Philagonia fraxinifolia Hook., Ic. Pl. t. 710. 1848. Evodia fraxinifolia (Hook.) Benth., Fl. Hongkong 59. 1861; Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 1: 490. 1875.

Kh.: Dieng-boraparam, Deing-Sngiyat.

Trees, 5 - 16 m high; branchlets woody, terete, glabrous or nearly so: bark greyish-brown,lenticellate. Leaves 15 - 45 cm long; rachis stout, slightly ridged above, otherwise terete, glabrous or sometimes with scattered adpressed hairs; leaflets 6 - 12, opposite; base in lateral leaflets acute to rounded and more or less oblique, cuneate in terminal leaflets, acuminate at apex, acumen 1.5 - 2 cm long, margins glandular-crenulate with 5 - 7 crenations per centimeter or rarely entire, 5.5 - 20.5 x (2.5-)3.5 - 8.5 cm, chartaceous to coriaceous, glabrous or puberulent; leaflets ovate, oblong, oblong-lanceolate or elliptic-obovate; secondary nerves 10 to 20 pairs, spreading, reticulate, ultimate nervelets rather inconspicuous; petiolules of lateral leaflets 5 - 10 mm long. Inflorescences 7 - 16 (-23) cm long, rachis compressed, puberulent to pubescent; pedicels 2 - 4 mm long, slender, pubescent. Male flowers: Sepals 4, connate at base, valvate, ovate, obtuse, 0.5 - 1 mm long, green, pubescent. Petals 4, valvate, oblong, apex hooded, 3 - 4.5 mm long, white or yellowish, glabrous abaxially, villous adaxially along midnerve up to middle from base. Stamens 4; filaments 4 - 4.5 mm long, subulate above, sparsely hairy adaxially, hairs glandtipped; anthers broadly oblong, ca 1.5 mm long. Pistillodes 3 or 4, 2.5 - 3 mm long, connate at base, styles subulate, glabrous. Disk obscure. Female flowers: Sepals, petals and disk as in male flowers. Staminodes 4, shorter than petals, ligulate. Ovary 4-carpellate, subglobose or obovoid, 2 - 3 mm long, glandular-punctate, glabrous, ovule 2 per carpel; style very short; stigma capitate, 4-lobed. Follicles 2-seeded, connate towards base abaxially, 10 - 15 mm across; exocarp shortly pubescent to glabrous abaxially; endocarp glabrous to sparsely pubescent; seeds subcollateral, separate, equal or unequal in size, 3 - 5 mm long, reddish brown, shiny, arillate.

Fl. April - July; Fr. Aug.- Jan.

Distrib. India: Evergreen forests in E. Himalayas and N.E. India, between 900 - 2500 m altitude. W. Bengal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland and Meghalaya. Cultivated in hill stations of Tamil Nadu.

Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, China, Thailand and Vietnam.

Notes. In North Bengal the plant is cultivated as a fodder. Wood is soft and white and is used for posts and making tea chests, ceiling boards, partitions and match splints. The plant is used as an antipyretic in Indo-China.

The under surface of leaflets in this species is often pale, reticulately nerved and prominently gland-dotted. However, a few specimens from Sikkim Himalayas show close similarity to Tetradium glabrifolium in having leaflets rather glaucous beneath, finely reticulate, subpapillate and inconspicuously gland-dotted.


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