Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Zanthoxylum myriacanthum Wallich ex Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 1: 496. 1875. Fagara myriacantha (Wallich ex Hook.f.) Engl. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 3(4): 118. 1896.

Evergreen trees up to 25 m high; main trunk armed with scattered, straight, conical prickles up to 3 cm long; branchlets terete, swollen and hollow inside or with septate pith, densely prickly with straight or slightly curved, brownish, 2 - 5 mm long prickles. Leaves imparipinnate, 20 - 45( -60) cm long; petiole and rachis usually unarmed or rarely prickly beneath, glabrous or pubescent; leaflets 7 - 23, opposite or subopposite, elliptic- oblong or oblong-lanceolate, obliquely rounded or subcordate at base, abruptly short acuminate at apex, finely glandular crenate along margins, 8 - 20.5 x 2.5 - 8.5 cm, coriaceous, glabrous, dark brownish when dry; midrib adpressed above, raised beneath; secondary nerves 8 - 20 pairs, spreading, reticulate; petiolules up to 6 mm long. Inflorescences terminal and pseudoterminal, up to 33 cm long, glabrous to shortly pubescent; peduncle often minutely prickly. Male flowers 2 - 3.5 mm long; pedicels up to 2 mm long, glabrous or nearly so. Sepals 5, triangular,obtuse, ca 1 mm long, glabrous. Petals 5, elliptic, obtuse, 1.5 - 2.5 mm long, glabrous. Stamens 5, slightly exserted; filaments linear, ca 1.5 mm long; anthers ovoid, ca 1 mm long. Disk pulvinate, ca 0.5 mm high. Pistillodes 3, ovoid-globose ca 0.5 mm high. Female flowers 2 - 3 mm long; pedicels, sepals, petals and disk as in male flowers. Staminodes absent. Gynoecium 3 - 4-carpellate, carpels ovoid-subglobose; style and stigma cohering to form a combined peltate stigmatic structure; fruiting pedicels 2 mm long. Follicles 1 - 3 with 2, 1, or 0 persistent abortive carpels, subglobose, 4 - 5 mm across, pustular; seeds compressed, ca 2.5 mm across, shiny, black.

Fl. March - May; Fr. June - Aug.

Distrib. India: Evergreen forests of E. Himalayas and N. E. India, up to 600 m. Sikkim, Assam and Nagaland.

Bangladesh, China, Sumatra, Malay peninsula and Philippines.

Notes. Fruits are said to be used as a condiment in Assam. The wood, although brittle, seems to be suitable for tea boxes.


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