Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Ailanthus excelsa Roxb., Pl. Coromandell: 24,t.23. 1795; A.W. Bennett in Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 1: 518. 1875; Pongelion wightii Tieghem in Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. 1: 277. 1906.

Guj.: Ardusi; Hindi: Arua, Maharukhi, Urrulo; Kan.: Doddamara; Mal.: Matti pongilyam;· Mar.: Maharukh; Or.: Mahanim; Sans.: Madala; Tam.: Perumaram, Peru; Tel.: Peddamanu; Urdu: Mahanim.

Deciduous trees with large leaf-scars, 15 - 25 m high. Leaves equally or unequally Pinnate, usually 20 - 40 cm long, rarely up to 90 cm or more; petioles tomentose; leaflets 8 - 14 pairs, alternate or opposite, variable in shape, unequal at base, acute or acuminate at apex, coarsely and irregularly toothed or sublobate, 4 - 16 x 3 - 8 cm, tomentose when young; lateral nerves 12 - 20 pairs; petiolules with 2 hairy glands near base. Flowers greenish-yellow, large, lax, in much-branched panicles; pedicels slender. Calyx lobes ovate-triangular, ca 2 mm long. Petals ovate-lanceolate, 3 - 4 x ca 2 mm, reflexed. Filaments glabrous; anthers ca 1 mm long. Ovary sparsely hairy; styles free or connate; stigma curling. Samaras linear, oblong to lanceolate, acute at both ends, 4 - 7.5 x 1 - 1.5 cm, reddish-brown, strongly reticulate, once or twice twisted at base.

Fl. & Fr. Dec. - July.

Distrib. India: Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, W. Bengal, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Andaman & Nicobar Islands.

Pakistan and Sri Lanka.

Uses. The timber is used for making packing cases, boats, toys and other articles since it is light. The tree yields an inferior type of bassora or hog-gum. Bark used as a febrifuge and tonic.

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