Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Ailanthus triphysa (Dennst.) Alston, Handb. Fl. Ceylon 6 (Suppl.): 41. 1931; Nooteb. in Steenis, Fl. Males. ser. I. 6: 219. 1962. Adenanthera triphysa Dennst., Schluss. Hort. Malab. 32. 1818. Ailanthus malabarica DC., Prodr. 2: 89. 1825; A.W. Bennett in Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 1: 518. 1875. A. kurzii Prain in Indian Forester 28: 133, t. 3B. 1902.


Kan.: Dhup, Hal-maddi; Mal.: Pongilyam, Mattipal; Tam.: Peru, Perumaram; Tel.: Peddaman.

Trees, large, deciduous, 30 - 40 m high; bark grey, rough. Leaves crowded, mostly paripinnate, 20 - 70 cm long; leaflets 6 - 10 pairs, opposite or alternate or subopposite, falcate, obliquely ovate-oblong or oblong-lanceolate, unequal at base, acute or acuminate at apex, entire or wavy along margins, 9 - 14 x 2.5 - 5.5 cm, glabrous, glaucous beneath; petiolules 5 - 10 mm long. Flowers in dense axillary branched pubescent 20 - 50 cm long panicles; bracts small, caducous; pedicels ca 3 mm long. Calyx lobes 3-angular, acute, ca 1 mm long, pubescent. Petals oblong-lanceolate, 3 - 5 x 1 - 1.5 mm, glabrous. Stamens 3 - 4 mm long in male flowers; filaments tortuous-folded in bud, filiform, with spreading hairs; anthers ovate-cordate. Ovary 2 - 2.5 x 1 - 1.5 mm, glabrous; styles free at base, connate above; stigma 3 - 4-lobed, peltate. Samaras linear-oblong, rounded at both ends, not twisted, 5 - 95 x 1.5 - 2.5 cm, reddish-brown.

Fl. & Fr. Jan. - May.

Distrib. India: Common in evergreen forests up to 1500 m. India: Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Andaman Islands.

Myanmar, Sri Lanka, China, Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia and Australia.

Uses. Wood is used for making packing cases, boards and toys; a viscous aromatic resin is obtained from bark which is locally used for incense. Fruits edible.




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