Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Dioecious. Trees or shrubs, evergreen or deciduous. Leaves alternate, entire, serrated or spinose; stipules persistent or caducous. Inflorescence cymose, simple or much branched, solitary, axillary or fascicled. Flowers white, small, regular, heteromerous, unisexual, rarely bisexual. Male flowers pedunculate. Calyx patelliform, 4 - 6-lobed. Petals 4 - 8, connate at base. Stamens shorter, equal to or longer than petals epipetalous; anthers oblong-ovate. Rudimentary ovary subglobose, with a beak, glabrous or ciliate. Female flowers 4 - 8-merous (sometimes 1 - 16-merous). Calyx 4 - 8-lobed, persistent. Petals connate at base or free. Staminodes epipetalous, small; sterile anthers cordate or sagittate. Ovary ovoid, 4 - 8, rarely 1 - 10-loculed, glabrous or pubescent; style absent; stigma discoid, capitate. Fruit a drupe, globose; exocarp membranous or chartaceous; mesocarp fleshy; endocarp stony. Pyrenes 4 - 12 (rarely 1 - 16), smooth, striate or rugose, pitted, 1-seeded.

America; Europe, Asia; ca 400 species, 26 in India.



KEY TO THE SPECIES


1a. Margins of leaves entire or with few teeth near the tip only 2
b. Margins of leaves spinous, crenate, dentate throughout 10
2a. Flowers bisexual 20. Ilex tadiandamolense
b. Flowers unisexual 3
3a. Stamens shorter than the petals 4
b. Stamens equal or longer than the petals 6
4a. Lateral nerves faint; flowers 6-merous 15. Ilex malabarica
b. lateral nerves distinct; flowers 1-6-merous 5
5a. Leaves 6 x 2 - 2.5 cm; petioles 0.6 - 1.2 cm long 14. Ilex longecaudata
b. Leaves 10-20 x 3-6.5 cm; petioles 1.3-2 cm long 23. Ilex venulosa
6a. Stamens equal to the petals in length 7
b. Stamens longer than the petals 9
7a. Lateral nerves distinct, 8-10 pairs 9. Ilex godajam
b. Lateral nerves faint 8
8a. Flowers 5-merous 7. Ilex gardneriana
b. Flowers 4-merous 4. Ilex embelioides
9a. Lateral nerves 7-8 pairs; inflorescence usually 3-7-flowered cyme (rarely up to 15 flowered) 5. Ilex excelsa
b. Lateral nerves 9-12 pairs; inflorescence usually 12-20-flowered cymes 22. Ilex umbellulata
10a. Flowers 6-16-merous 6. Ilex fragilis
b. Flowers 4-5-merous 11
11a. Stamens longer than petals 12
b. Stamens equal to or shorter than petals 15
12a. Leaves up to 3 cm long; petioles 1-2 mm long 8. Ilex georgei
b. Leaves more than 3 cm long; petioles more than 3 mm long 13
13a. Petioles 1 - 1.3 cm long; leaves mucronate; calyx 1.5 mm across 13. Ilex khasiana
b. Petioles not more than 0.7 cm long; leaves acuminate; calyx 1.75 - 2 mm across 14
14a. Leaf base acute, cuneate, narrowed; peduncle present; drupe pedicellate; pyrenes 2.75 - 4 x 1.8 - 2 mm 17. Ilex odorata
b. Leaf base rounded; peduncle absent; drupes subsessile; pyrenes 5.7 x 5 mm 3. Ilex dipyrena
15a. Stamens equal to petals 16
b. Stamens shorter than petals 20
16a. Lateral nerves below 10 pairs 17
b. Lateral nerves above 10 pairs 18
17a. Lateral nerves 4-6 pairs; petioles 0.2-0.3 cm long 1. Ilex crenata
b. Lateral nerves 6-9 pairs; petioles 1-1.3 cm long 2. Ilex denticulata
18a. Lateral nerves 13-15 pairs; petioles 3 cm long 11. Ilex insignis
b. Lateral nerves within 10-12 pairs; petioles less than 3 cm long 19
19a. Pedieels 1-2 cm long in male inflorescence; leaves 6-11 x 2-2.5 cm 25. Ilex wattii
b. Pedicels 2-3 mm long in male inflorescence; leaves 13-20 x 3-6.2 cm 19. Ilex sikkimensis
20a. Lateral nerves indistinct 26. Ilex wightiana
b. Lateral nerves distinct 21
21a. Lateral nerves within 4 pairs 22
b. Lateral nerves more than 4 pairs 24
22a. Prostrate shrubs; petioles 1-2 mm long 12. Ilex intricata
b. Trees; petioles more than 2 mm long 23
23a. Petioles 0.4 - 0.5 cm long; leaves 0.7 - 1.4 x 0.6 - 1 cm 16. Ilex nothofagifolia
b. Petioles 0.25 cm long; leaves 1.5-2.5 x 3 cm 24. Ilex walkeri
24a. Male inflorescence 7-flowered fascicle; stipules 0.8-1.8 cm long 18. Ilex pseudo-odorata
b. Male inflorescence 1-3 -flowered fascicle; 'stipules minute or eadueous 25
25a. Petioles 1.2-2 cm long; stipules persistent; peduncles up to 0.1 cm long 10. Ilex hookeri
b. Petioles 0.4 cm long; stipules cadueous; peduncles up to 0.2 cm long 21. Ilex triflora


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