Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Canarium bengalense Roxb., Fl. Ind. 3: 136. 1832; A.W. Bennett in Hook. f., Fl. Bnt. India 1: 534.1875; Leenh. in Blumea 9: 412. t. 27. 1959.

Asm.: Bisjang, Dhuna; Asm. & Sylhet: Dhuna, Nerebi; Garo: Borsamphol, Tekreng; Lepcha: Narockpa; Nep.: Goguldhup.

Trees, 20 - 25 m high, buttressed; branchlets lenticellate, pubescent when young. Leaves 6 - 9-jugate, rarely 10-jugate; 30 - 75 cm long; stipules subulate, ca 8 mm long, pubescent, caducous, stipule-scars prominent; leaflets oblong-ovate, lanceolate, elliptic or oblanceolate, 6.3 - 23 x 3 - 8 cm, chartaceous, sometimes sparsely pubescent on the nerves beneath, oblique, rounded or acute at base, entire, slightly wavy, rarely irregularly crenate towards apex; acuminate or caudate at apex. Inflorescence axillary or supra-axillary, thyrsoid; male ones 12 - 43 cm long; flowers 13 - 15 mm long. Calyx cupular, 2 - 3 mm long, shallowly 3-lobed; lobes deltoid, sparsely tomentose outside, rounded at apex. Petals oblanceolate-oblong, 9 - 11 x 3 - 4 mm, cucullate towards apex, pubescent outside. Stamens 6, 8 - 10 mm long, connate at base for about half the length of filaments. Disk tubular, hirsute. Pistillode in male flowers absent or minute, densely tomentose. Drupes 1 - 3, spindle-shaped, 4 - 5 x 1.5 - 2 cm, pruinose, dark purple; mesocarp fleshy, aromatic; calyx persistent, saucer-shaped, 3-lobed.

Fl. May - Sept.; Fr. July - Dec.

Distrib. India: Evergreen, moist and mixed forests from 370 - 1000 m. Assam, W. Bengal, E. Himalayas.

Bangladesh, Myanmar, Laos and Thailand.

Uses. Fruits with aromatic flesh are edible. The brittle, amber-coloured resin is burnt as incense. Wood is used for planks, shingles and tea-boxes. The leaves and bark are used externally for rheumatic swellings. Resin mixed with bees' WaX is used as a substitute for shellac used in stiffening crepe.

Notes. Resembles C. strictum Roxb. but differs by the large number of leaflets and usually acutely 3-angular fruits.


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