Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Canarium strictum Roxb., Fl. Ind. 3: 138.1832; A.W. Bennett in Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 1: 534. 1875; Leenh. in Blumea 9: 414. 1959. C. sikkimense King in J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 62(2): 187. t. 11, 12. 1894; Brandis, Ind. Trees 1: 30. 1921. C. reziniferum Brace ex King in J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 62(2): 188. 1894; Kanj. et al., Fl. Assam 1: 224. 1936.

Beng., Guj. & Hindi: Kala dammar; Kan.: Halemaddu, Karedupa, Mada dhup, Ral dhup; Mal.: Karuttukungiliyam, Kunthirikka-payin, Pantappayan, Thelli, Virakar; Mar.: Dhup, Raldhup; Sans.: Raladhupa; Tam.: Attam, Karunkungiliyam, Kundurukkam, Kungulu; Tel.: Nalla rojanamu; Eng.: Black damar, Black dhup, Indian white Mahogany.

Large trees, 20 - 30(-50) m high tall, buttressed; young branchlets ferruginously woolly. Leaves exstipulate, 3 - 5 rarely, 7-jugate, variable in shape and degree of pubescence; 20 - 56 cm long; rachis tomentose; leaflets ovate-elliptic, oblong-obovate, lanceolate or oblanceolate, 7 - 22 x 4 - 10 cm, coriaceous, ferruginously tomentose beneath,oblique,obtuse or subcordate or rounded to broadly cuneate, slightly decurrent at base; serrulate, crenulate, irregularly obscurely crenate or finely undulate along margins, shortly acuminate at apex. Inflorescence axillary or pseudoterminal, thyrsoid, sometimes racemose, densely ferruginously woolly or minutely fulvous-tomentose; male ones 15 - 40 cm long; female ones 7 - 20 cm long. Flowers unisexual or bisexual, yellow, dull white or pale green with mangiferous odour; bracts caducous; pedicels short in male flowers, long in female flowers. Male flowers: Calyx tube campanulate, 5 - 5.5 x 3 - 4 mm; lobes 3-angular, ferruginously pubescent outside. Petals oblong-lanceolate, concave, 6.5 - 8.5 x 2.5 - 4.5 mm, subglabrous to densely pubescent. Stamens 6 - 8 mm long, connate into a tube, anthers acuminate. Disk apically pilose; pistillode absent. Female flowers: Calyx tube urceolate, 5 - 6 x 4 - 5 mm, pubescent outside. Petals oblong-oblanceolate, 7 - 8 x 3 - 4 mm, pubescent outside. Stamens 3.5 - 4.5 mm long; filaments broad, connate to form a cup; anthers reduced. Disk obscurely lobed, pilose. Pistil ca 6.5 mm long, flask-shaped; ovary and style hairy; style thick; stigma capitate. Drupes oblong-ellipsoid or obovoid, 3.5 - 4 x 1.5 - 2 cm, dark blue.

Fl. & Fr. Jan. - Dec.

Distrib. India: Moist evergreen forests. Sikkim, Assam, Meghalaya, Orissa, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.

Upper Myanmar.

Uses. The resin from the tree called the black dammar of commerce is used in the manufacture of varnishes, bottling wax and as a substitute for Burgundy pitch in plasters. It is used for caulking boats. Well-seasoned timber is used for making boards, for ceiling,flooring and partitions. Decoction or powder of resin is given internally as a remedy in rheumatism, cough, fever, epilepsy, asthma, syphilis, blood impurities, various poisons, hernia, haemorrage and to improve complexion.

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