Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Canarium vulgare Leenh. in Bernice P. Bishop Mus. Bull. 216: 31. f. 13. 1955; Leenh. in Steenis, Fl. Males. I, 5: 263. 1956. C. commune L., Mant. Pl. 127. 1767, p.p.; A.W. Bennett in Fl. Brit. India 1: 531. 1875.

Hindi:Jangli badam; Kan.: Java badam iyanne, Kaglimara; Mal.: Karaiccingari; Eng.: Java Almond.

Trees, up to 45 m high, buttressed; branchlets smooth, glabrous. Leaves 2 - 5-jugate, 23 - 32 cm long; rachis swollen at nodes; stipules at junction of branchlet and rachis, oblong, elliptic or rotundate,auricled, 1 - 5 x 0.5 - 1.75 cm, glabrous or pulverulent, entire or slightly wavy, rounded at apex. caducous, stipule-scars linear; leaflets lanceolate, ovate-oblong, terminal leaflet often smaller and elliptic; 4.5 - 16 x 2 - 7 cm, chartaceous to subcoriaceous, slightly oblique at base, cuneate, dilated and articulate at the point where lamina and petiole join, entire or wavy along margins, long acuminate at apex. Inflorescence terminal, thyrsoid, branched; male ones up to 35 cm long, female ones up to 20 cm long; bracts ovate-orbicular, concave. ca 5 x 4 mm, densely pubescent, obtuse-rounded at apex. Flowers tomentose; male flowers sessile or subsessile. ca 5 mm long; female flowers stalked, 6 - 7(-12) mm long. Calyx cup-shaped, ca 3.5 x 4.5 mm, shallowly lobed; lobes ovate, obtuse, densely pubescent outside. Petals ovate, ca 4.5 x 3 mm, obtuse. Stamens 6, free, ca 3 mm long. Disk in male flowers solid, variable in form and shape, sometimes with a style-like appendix; in female flowers adnate to receptacle except the rim. Ovary glabrous. Pistillode absent in male flowers. Drupes up to 12, ovoid, calyx persistent, flat, lobes orbicular with undulate margin.

Fl. & Fr. March - June.

Distrib. India: Cultivated in Kerala.

Malesia. Also cultivated throughout the tropics.

Uses. Seeds from cultivated trees are used as a substitute for almonds. The oil from seeds is used as a substitute for coconut oil. The pressed cake is used as fertilizer and cattle feed. An emulsion of the seeds is used as baby food. Timber is used for canoe building; buttresses are used for making paddles. The oleo-resin called nauli gum is applied in the form of an ointment to indolent ulcers. Planted as a shade-tree in nutmeg plantations. Resin is used as an incense, and as a fixative in perfumery and for varnishes. Oil derived from resin is employed in varnish industry and for soaps and cosmetics.

Notes. Closely related to C. indicum L. but differs in having more or less caducous, entire stipules.

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