Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

JSP Page
D.C.S. Raju

Trees or shrubs, glabrous, rarely hairy, aromatic. Leaves spirally arranged, simple, entire or sometimes lobed, penninerved, evergreen or deciduous; stipules large, enclosing the young buds, later caducous, leaving a scar on the nodes of branches, sometimes adnate to the petiole and leaving a scar on the upper surface of petiole. Flowers solitary, usually bisexual, very rarely unisexual, large, terminal or pseudo-axillary; the parts hypogynous; peduncles bearing one or more spathaceous caducous bracts, leaving annular scars. Perianth spirally arranged or in one whorl of sepals and 2 - 4 whorls of petals, usually 3-merous or rarely 5-merous; segments usually 9 or more, rarely fewer, homochlamydous or heterochlamydous, generally white or red, mostly fragrant. Stamens numerous, spirally arranged, free, sometimes not differentiated into anther and filament; staminodes absent; anthers linear or oblong, 2-locular, dehiscing introrsely or rarely extrorsely; connective usually apically produced. Gynoecium sessile or stipitate; carpels numerous, rarely few and sometimes reduced to 2, spirally arranged on an elongated axis; stigma ventrally decurrent; ovules 2 to several, biseriate on ventral suture, bitegmic, crassinucellar, anatropous. Fruiting carpels apocarpous or sometimes syncarpoust consisting of follicles on elongated axis, mostly dry, rarely fleshy, dehiscent by dorsal and/or ventral suture, or indehiscent, rarely samaroid. Seeds large, with elongate funicle; usually with an outer stomatate arilloid sarcotesta and inner woody integument; endosperm copious, oily, fleshy; embryo minute; cotyledons hardly differentiated.

Temperate, subtropical and tropical regions of S.E. Asia, from Himalayas to Japan and Malesia, Eastern U.S.A, West Indies, C. America and E. Brazil; 10 genera and ca 225 Species, 3 genera and 24 species in India.

Notes. The family has disjunct distribution in Indian subcontinent. Most of the species are found in N.E. India,including E.Himalayas and one species endemic to Nilgiris in South India.Michelia champaca L. and Magnolia grandiflora L. are cultivated near places of worship and in gardens, respectively.

Literature. AGABABIN, V. S. (1972) Pollen morphology of the family Magnoliaceae. Grana 12(3): 166 -176. BHANDARI, N. N. (1971) Embryology of the Magnoliales and comments on their relationships. J. Arn. Arb. 52: 1 .39, 285 - 304. BARANOVA, M. (1972) Systematic anatomy of the leaf epidermis in the Magnoliaceae and some related families. Taxon 21: 447·469. CANRIGHT, J. E. (1952) The comparative morphology and relationships of the Magnoliaceae. I . Trends of specialization in the stamens. Amer. J. Bot. 39: 484 - 497. CANRlGHT, J. E. (1953) The comparative morphology and relationships of the Magnoliaceae. II . Significance of pollen. Phytomorphology 3: 355 - 365. CANRIGHT, J. E. (1955) The comparative morphology and relationships of Magnoliaceae. IV. Wood and nodal anatomy. J. Arn. Arb. 36: 119 - 140. CANRIGHT, J. E. (1963) Contributions of pollen morphology to the phylogeny of some ranalean families. Grana 4: 64 - 72. DANDY, J. E. (1927) The genera of Magnoliaceae. Kew Bull. 1927: 257 - 264. GOLDBLATT, P. (1974) A contribution to the knowledge of cytology in Magnoliales. J. Arn Arb. 55: 453 - 457. GOOD, R. (1925) The past and present distribution of the Magnolieae. Ann. Bot. 39: 409 - 430. HAYASHI, Y. (1960) On the microsporogenesis and pollen morphology in Magnoliaceae. Sci. Rep. Tohoku Univ. IV (26.1): 45 - 52. JANAKI AMMAL, E. K. (1952) The race histoty of Magnolias. J. Gen. Pl. Breed. 12: 82 - 92. KENG, H. (1978) The delimitation of the genus Magnolia (Magnoliaceae). Gard. Bull. Sing. 31: 127 - 131. KING, G. (1891) The Magnoliaceae of British India. Ann. R. Bot. Gard. Calc. 3: 197 - 226. LEPPIK, E. E. (1975) Morphogenic stagnation in the evolution of Magnolia flowers. Phytomorphology 25: 451 - 464. NOOTEBOOM, H. P. (1988) Magnoliaceae. In: Fl. Males. I, 10: 561 - 605. PALIWAL, G.S. & N.N. BHANDARI (1962) Stomatal development in some Magnoliaceae. Phytomorphology 12: 409 - 412. PANT, D. D. & K. L. GUPTA (1966) Development of stomata and foliar structure of some Magnoliaceae. J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 59: 265 - 277.TUCKER, S. C. (1977) Foliar sclereids in the Magnoliaceae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 75: 325 - 356. WHITAKER, T. W. (1933) Chromosome number and relationships in the Magnoliales. J. Arn. Arb. 14: 376 - 385.


1a. Flowers usually axillary; gynoecium stipitate 2. Michelia
b. Flowers usually terminal; gynoecium sessile 2
2a. Stipulcs free from petiole, deciduous; perianth yellow; fruit a woody loculicidal capsule, composed of 2 - 8 concrescent carpels 3. Pachylarnax
b. Stipulcs mostly adnate to the petiole, usually persistent; perianth white or reddish pink; fruit not capsular, composed of 20 - many free carpel 1. Magnolia

JSP Page
  • Search