Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Euonymus Tour. ex L.

Shrubs or small trees. Leaves opposite, decussate, alternate, rarely spiral; stipules caducous. Flowers in axillary cymes, rarely in fascicles, bisexual, 5 or 4-merous. Sepals deeply lobed, imbricate, entire-denticulate. Petals spreading or reflexed, entire, crenulate, toothed or fimbriate, imbricate. Stamens inserted on the disc; filaments short; anthers deltoid, dehiscent on the top, lateral or introrse. Ovary immersed in the disc. Ovules 2 in each locule. Fruits capsular, lobed, angular or winged, smooth or spiny, when dehiscing the valves splitting and leaving no central axis. Seeds arillate.

Mainly in tropical and subtropical Asia and C. & N. America, fewer species in Europe and Africa; ca 176 species, 32 in India.

Literature. BLAKELOCK, R.A. (1951). A synopsis of the genus Euonymus. Kew Bull. 210-290.


1a. Winter buds ovoid. small; filaments distinct; anthers 2-celled. dehiscing with two distinct slits; capsules of various shapes. if oblate-globose then not winged 2
b. Winter buds conic. large; filaments obscure; anthers 1-celled, dehiscing by one continuous slit; capsules oblate-globose. winged 26
2a. Flowers fascicled or sometimes in fasciculately arranged 1-3-tlowered short and obscure peduncles; tall trees 20. Euonymus javanicus
b. Flowers in axillary, usually many flowered, sometimes dichotomous cymes, on conspicuous peduncles (peduncles sometimes short or lacking in E. indicus); small trees or shrubs 3
3a. Capsules partite almost to base 4
b. Capsules not partite or partite up to middle only 5
4a. Flowers 5-merous: inflorescence 6-15-flowered; petals fringed, oblong. white 25. Euonymus pendulus
b. Flowers 4-merous; inflorescence 1-7-flowered; petals entire, rounded, green 22. Euonymus lawsonii
5a. Capsules smooth 6
b. Capsules echinate 25
6a. Capsules lobed, angled or winged. apex retuse, acute or obtuse; small trees or erect shrubs 7
b. Capsule unlobed or with shallow rounded lobes, apex rounded or nearly so; climbing shrubs 23
7a. Flowers 2-2.5 cm across; disc 6-8 mm wide; capsule rounded 16. Euonymus grandiflorus
b. Flowers up to 12 mm in diam. (up to 18 mm in E. tingens); disc 2-5 mm wide; capsules turbinate, obconie or clavate. rarely rounded 8
8a. Leaves up to 3 cm long; petiole up to 3 mm long 29. Euonymus tibeticus
b. Leaves 5.5-24 cm long; petiole 0.3-3 cm long 9
9a. Leaves deciduous; petals oblong-lanceolate, with revolute margins 18. Euonymus hamiltonianus
b. Leaves persistent petals orbicular 10
10a. Petals fringed or denticulate; leaves entire 11
b. Petals entire or crenulate; leaves serrate or entire 13
11a. Leaves elliptic or obovate-oblong, petals yellowish to greenish; yellow 8. Euonymus cochinchinensis
b. Leaves lanceolate; petals purple 12
12a. Cymes 7 or more-flowered; petiole 1-2 cm long 4. Euonymus attenuatus
b. Cymes 1-3 -flowered; petiole 3-8 mm long 19. Euonymus indicus
13a. Flowers 4-merous 14
b. Flowers 5-merous 16
14a. Leaves bullate. up to 20 cm long 5. Euonymus bullatus
b. Leaves not bullate, less than 13 cm long 15
15a. Capsule 8-10 mm long, rounded at base, lobes rounded; leaves serrate to base 32. Euonymus viburnoides
b. Capsule 15-20, mm long, pyriform. lobes angled; leaves serrate in uppr half 21. Euonymus kachinensis
16a. Capsule 4 mm long 23. Euonymus macrocarpus
b. Capsule up to 2.5 mm long 17
17a. Petals with conspicuous black veins; flowers 10-18 mm in diam. 30. Euonymus tingens
b. Petals without black veins; flowers under 12 mm across 18
18a. Inflorescence of 1-3-flowered solitary peduncles 10. Euonymus crenulatus
b. Inflorescence 7-or more-flowered dichotomous cymes 19
19a. Twigs acutely 4-angled, almost winged 2. Euonymus angulatus
b. Twigs terete 20
20a. Leaves 6 cm or below in length. entire; petals entire 11. Euonymus dichotomus
b. Leaves more than 7 cm long, serrate or crenate; petals crenulate, rarely entire 21
21a. Leaves sharply serrate to base 27. Euonymus serratifolius
b. Leaves crenate-serrate only towards apex 22
22a. Petals white or greenish 15. Euonymus glaber
b. Petals purplish 24. Euonymus paniculatus
23a. Leaves sessile or sub-sessile petiole not more than 2.5 mm long 17. Euonymus griffithii
b. Leaves distinctly petioled petiole 0.5 - 1.25 cm long 24
24a. Veins conspicuously reticulate above in leaves; capsules greenish 28. Euonymus theifolius
b. Veins obscure in leaves; capsules brownish 31. Euonymus vagans
25a. Capsules greenish when dry; prickles more than 2 mm long 6. Euonymus cinereus
b. Capsules brownish when dry; prickles less than 2 mm long 12. Euonymus echinatus
26a. Flowers 5-merous 27
b. Flowers 4-merous 28
27a. Leaves deciduous, oblong, elliptic or ovate, entire; petals cream coloured 3. Euonymus assamicus
b. Leaves persistent lanceolate, serrulate; petals pruple 7. Euonymus clivicolus
28a. Leaves deciduous 29
b. Leaves persistent or nearly so 30
29a. Leaves ovate, biserrate or fringed (uniserrate in E. flmbriatus var. serratus); peduncles 5-8 cm long; petals white or greenish; capsule wings 6-15 mm long 13. Euonymus fimbriatus
b. Leaves lanceolate, not fringed or biserrate; peduncles 3-4 cm long; petals purple; capsule wings 2-7 mm long 1. Euonymus amygdalifolius
30a. Capsule wings up to 12 mm long, attached more toward the middle of the capsule; veins arising at an acute angle to the midrib 9. Euonymus cornutoides
b. Capsule wings up to S mm long, attached towards the base of the capsule; veins arising at an angle of 45° or more to the midrib 31
31a. Leaves up to 30 cm long; apex acuminate; inflorescence 7-15-flowered 14. Euonymus frigidus
b. Leaves up to 8 cm long; apex obtuse; inflorescecne 3-7-flowered 26. Euonymus pygmeus

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