Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Debika Mitra

Trees, shrubs or climbers. Leaves simple, alternate, distichous, exstipulate, entire, coriaceous, glossy above, glaucous beneath. Inflorescences axillary or extra-axillary, leaf-opposed or cauliflorous, sympodial or the flowers solitary, or a few to many in fascicles. Flowers bisexual or rarely unisexual, large or small, often scented, the parts hypogynous. Perianth heterochlamydous. Sepals usually 3 (2 - 4), free or connate at base, usually valvate, rarely calyptrate, sometimes persistent in fruit. Petals 6 (3 + 3), rarely 12, 8, 4, or 3, rarely the inner ones absent, valvate, rarely imbricate, usually free, sometimes partly united at the bases or apices at young stage, variable in size and shape. Stamens numerous, free, spirally arranged on the torus, rarely 3 or 6 and whorled, hypogynous; filaments very short, inconspicuous and connectives conspicuous; anthers usually adnate, sometimes basifixed, extrorse; locules concealed (Uvarioid type) or not concealed (Miliusoid type) by the apically produced connectives. Carpels apocarpous, spirally arranged, or whorled, numerous, sometimes few, unilocular, oblong, cylindric or terete; ovules 1 to many, when many in 2 ventral or parietal placentas, anatropous, crassinucellar; style present or absent; stigma usually capitate or grooved, sometimes 2-lobed or peltate. Torus usually convex, conical, dome-shaped or flat, sometimes concave. Ripe carpels many, free (united syncarp only in Annona), globose, ellipsoid to cylindric, sometimes moniliform and constricted between seeds, usually berries, rarely capsules or follicles. Seeds 1 to many, in 1 - 2 rows; testa thin, crustaceous, shiny; endosperm copious, ruminate, hard or fleshy; embryo minute or small, linear, straight; cotyledons not broadened, undifferentiated.

Lowland evergreen tropical forests of America, Asia to Australia; ca 122 genera and ca 1200 species, 24 genera and 120 species in India.

Literature. HUTCHINSON, J. (1923) A contribution towards a phylogenetic classification of flowering plants. II. The genera of Annonaceae. Bull. Misc. Inf. Kew 1923: 241 - 261. KING, G. (1893) The Annonaceae of British India. Ann. R Bot. Gard. Calc. 4: 1 - 169, tt. 1 - 220. KOEK-NORMAN, J., L. Y. TH. WESTRA & P. J. M. MAAS (1990) Studies in Annonaceae. XIII, The role of morphological characters in subsequent classifications of Annonaceae: A comparative study. Taxon 39: 16 - 32. MITRA, DEBIKA (1982) Annonaceae: Tribe Uvarieae. In: Fasc. Fl. India 10: 1 - 21. SETTEN, A. K. van P. J. M. MAAS (1990) Studies in Annonaceae. XIV. Index to generic names of Annonaceae. Taxon 39: 675 - 690. SINCLAIR, J. (1955) A revision of the Malayan Annonaceae. Gard. Bull. Str. Settlem. ser. 3, 14(2): 149 R. F. (1974) A phylogenetic classification of the Annoniflorae. Aliso 8: 147 - 209. WALKER, J. W. - 516. THORNE, (1971) Pollen morphology, phytogeography and phylogeny of Annonaceae. Contrib. Gray Herb. No. 202: 1 - 130.


1a. Ripe carpels united, forming many-loculed syncarpous fruits Tribe 1. ANNONINEAE
b. Ripe carpels free, forming apocarpous fruits 2
2a. Anther-locules not concealed at top by overlapping connectives (stamens Miliusoid); sepals and outer petals not distinguishable (except in Alphonsea) Tribe 2. MILIUSEAE
b. Anther-locules concealed at top by overlapping connectives (stamens Uvarioid); sepals and outer petals distinguishable 3
3a. Sepals imbricate, rarely valvate; petals imbricate in one or both series (in bud) Tribe 5. UVARIEAE
b. Sepals valvate; petals valvate in both series 4
4a. Petals spreading in flowers or the apices free, almost similar and equal Tribe 4. UNONEAE
b. Petals, outer sometimes spreading, inner ones not spreading but remaining erect, dissimilar and unequal 5
5a. Inner petals usually triquetrous, sometimes ovate-elliptic (in Anaxagorea), touching each other vertically Tribe 6. XYLOPIEAE
b. Inner petals connivent, arching over the stamens and carpels forming a dome (mitriform) Tribe 3. MITREPHORAE

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