Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Trees, usually glabrous or with an indumentum of simple hairs. Leaves pinnate; leaflets opposite, subopposite or alternate, elliptic, oblique at base, acuminate at apex, coriaceous. Flowers bisexual or unisexual (trees dioecious), in axillary panicles, racemes or spikes, occasionally rami-or cauliflorous, sometimes subtended by several imbricate bracts. Calyx usually shallowly or deeply 4 - 5-lobed or sepals free, spreading, valvate or imbricate. Petals 4 - 5, spreading, valate or imbricate, free but sometimes fused to lower or upper half of staminal tube. Staminal tube cylindric, entire at margin, crenate, irregularly toothed or terminated by 6 - 10 simple or 2-lobed appendages; anthers 6, 8 or 10, short, included or half-exserted, glabrous, rarely hairy, alternating with append- ages. Disk tubular or cup-shaped, crenulate along margin or lobed, free. Ovary 2 - 5-locular; locules 1 - 2-ovuled; style about as long as staminal tube; stigma discoid or capitate. Fruit a loculicidal capsule, 2 - 5-valved; locules 1 - 2-seeded; seeds arillate or not, nonendospermous.

Indo-Malesian region eastwards to Australia, New Guinea, Polynesia and New Zealand with ca 60 species; 16 in India.


1a. Flowers 5-merous 3. Dysoxylum arborescens
b. Flowers 4-merous 2
2a. Calyx cup-shaped, about half as long as flower 3
b. Calyx 4 - 5 partite or sepalous, usually less than half as long as flow 4
3a. Venation in leaflets prominent; calyx almost entire or obscurely 4-lobed; capsules reddish 5. Dysoxylum binectariferum
b. Venation in leaflets not prominent; calyx shallowly 4-lobed; capsules purple 7. Dysoxylum ficiforme
4a. Flowers in panicles 5
b. Flowers in racemes or spikes 9
5a. Disk densely hairy at mouth 6
b. Disk glabrous at mouth or nearly so 7
6a. Flowers creamy white, fragrant, 1 cm or longer; pedicels short 8. Dysoxylum gobarum
b. Flowers white tinged with purple, foetid, less than 8 mm long; pedicels to 6 mm long 16. Dysoxylum thyrsoideum
7a. Disk shorter than ovary 10. Dysoxylum malabaricum
b. Disk as long as or twice as long as ovary 8
8a. Leaflets opposite, glabrescent beneath; capsules less than 2.5 cm long 1. Dysoxylum alliarium
b. Leaflets alternate, velvety beneath; capsules more than 5 cm long 9. Dysoxylum grande
9a. Disk shorter than ovary 10
b. Disk as long as or longer than ovary 11
10a. Tertiary nerves in leaflets prominent; racemes to 25 cm long; flowers to 7 mm long; capsules 5 - 6.5 cm across, verrucose with longitudinal ridges 14. Dysoxylum reticulatum
b. Tertiary nerves in leaflets not prominent; spikes to 5 cm long; flowers 2 - 5 mm long; capsules 3 - 5 cm across, 3-grooved 2. Dysoxylum andamanicum
11a. Staminal tube glabrous; disk scarcely longer than ovary 12
b. Staminal tube hairy; disk clearly longer than ovary 13
12a. Leaves 20 - 30 cm long; leaflets 2 pairs, opposite; inflorescence to 2.5 cm long 15. Dysoxylum rugulosum
b. Leaves 30 - 60 cm long; leaflets 3 - 5 pairs, alternate; inflorescence 2.5 - 25 cm long 12. Dysoxylum pallens
13a. Shrub or small tree 13. Dysoxylum racemosum
b. Medium-sized to tall trees 14
14a. Staminal tube pubescent on both sides; ovary 2-locular 4. Dysoxylum beddomei
b. Staminal tube puberulous inside only; ovary 4-locular 15
15a. Leaves imparipinnate; leaflets 11 - 13; spikes clustered, 3 - 9 cm long 6. Dysoxylum densiforum
b. Leaves paripinnate; leaflets 6; spikes solitary, 10 - 20 cm long 11. Dysoxylum microbotrys

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