Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Toona (Endl.) M. Roemer

Trees, deciduous or semievergreen, with an indumentum of simple hairs. Leaves paripinnate, sometimes imparipinnate; leaflets entire, serrate or dentate, glabrous or hairy. Flowers in terminal or subterminal panicles, 5-merous, unisexual but with well-developed vestiges of opposite sex. Calyx of free sepals, or 5-lobed. Petals 5, free, imbricate, longer than calyx in bud, attached at base by carina to cushion-shaped disk (androgynophore). Stamens 5, free, arising from disk, yellow, dehiscing. Antherodes brown, shrivelled, without pollen, sometimes with 1 - 5 thread-like staminodes alternating with stamens. Ovary at apex of disk, 5-locular; locules 6 - 10-ovuled; style short; stigma discoid, glandular. Pistillode slender with well-developed locules and small vestigial ovules. Fruit an ellipsoid or obovoid sepifragal capsule; seeds winged at both ends or with a single wing, with residual endosperm.

World from Pakistan eastwards to Australia with 7 species; 7 in India.


1a. Stamens 5; staminodes 5 2
b. Stamens 5; staminodes absent 3
2a. Leaflets serrate or dentate along margins; calyx cup-shaped; disk and ovary glabrous 5. Toona sinensis
b. Leaflets entire along margins; sepals free; disk and ovary hirsute 3. Toona hainesii
3a. Bracts prominent, persistent 7. Toona ternatensis
b. Bracts absent or inconspicuous, or early caducous 4
4a. Leaflets membranous; sepals free 5
b. Leaflots more or less coriaceous; calyx cup-shaped 6
5a. Leatlets short-petiolulate; pedicels and sepals densely hairy; capsules verruculose 4. Toona microcarpa
b. Leaflets long-petiolulate; pedicels and sepals more or less glabrous; capsules glabrous or lenticellate 1. Toona ciliata
6a. Flower buds globose; calyx covering 3/4 of bud 6. Toona sureni
b. Flower buds conical; calyx covering 1/4 of bud 2. Toona fargesii

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