Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Herbs, much branched. Leaves alternate or rarely opposite, entire, or toothed or lobed. Heads heterogamous with the ray florets (female) in 1 or 2 rows, fertile or sterile; the central disc florets bisexual, male or sterile. Receptacle naked or few setaceous. Involucral bracts usually narrow, in 2 - 3 rows, herbaceous or with scarious margins. Corolla mostly yellow or orange; of ray florets ligulate, trilobed, spreading or reduced; those of the disc florets five lobed and regular. Anthers terminally appendaged, sagittate at base with acute or obtuse auricles. Styles of fertile disc florets with truncate and penicillate tips. Achenes of various and irregular shapes, mostly curved and winged or sometimes thick and hard, epappose.

Chiefly African and Mediterranean; 10 genera and ca 76 species; 1 genus and 2 in India.

The Tribe Calenduleae has affinities with Cynaroideae on one hand and Senecionideae on the other, although none of them be regarded as ancestral to them.

The tribe Calenduleae has its primary centre of diversification in South Africa, where morphologically most primitive types are found. The group was first created by Cassini (1821 - 24) to accomodate 9 genera, six of which were established by himself. Lessing (1832) retained only the Type genus Calendula in Calendulae and reduced to a subtribe of the Cynareae. But Bentham (1873) again raised the Calenduleae to tribal rank, which has been followed by many other subsequent workers.

The Calenduleae has two chief centres of distribution, one Mediterranean and the other South African. The genus Calendula has its main distribution in Mediterranean region.

Literature. BENTHAM, G. (1873). Note. on the classification, history and geographical distribution of compositae. J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 13: 335 - 577. CRONQUIST, A. (1955). Phylogeny and taxonomy of the Compositae. Arn. Midl. Nat. S3: 478 - 511. SOLBRIG, O.T. (1963). Subfamilial nomenclature in Compositae. Taxon 12: 229 - 235. SOLBRIG, O.T. (1963). The tribes of Compositae in the Southeastern United States. J. Arn. Arb. 44: 436-461.

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