Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

JSP Page
Ziziphus Tourn. ex Miller

Shrubs or trees, rarely decumbent or creeping; branches often zig-zag. Leaves alternate or opposite, entire or crenate, coiraceous, 3-5-nerved from the base, petiolate; stipules either single or rarely two, spinescent; spines sharp, curved or straight, recurved ones shorter. Inflorescence axillary or terminal cymes or thyrses. Flowers pentamerous, bisexual or polygamous, perigynous, pedicellate. Petals cucullate, incurved or deflexed, rarely absent. Stamens included or excluded, inserted below the disc. Disc flat or pitted, 5 or 10-lobed, or rarely entire, often with 10 depressions covering the receptacle, margins free. Ovary immersed in the disc and adnate to its base, 2-4-loculed; style 2-4, free, diverging or combined; stigma papillose. Drupes globose or oblong; putaman woody or horny, 1-3-celled. Seeds 1-3, plano-convex, testa thin, brittle, smooth shining, exalbuminous or with scanty endosperm; cotyledons thick; radicle short.

Temperate and tropical parts of the world, chiefly in Asia and America, a few extending to the Pacific Islands and Australia; ca 135 species, 17 in India.

Literature. KHOSHOO T.N. & N. SINGH (1963) Cytology of North-west Indian trees I. Ziziphus jujuba and Z. rotundifolia. Silvae Genetica 12, 5: 158-165.


1a. Cymes axillary, sessile or shortly pedunculate 2
b. Cymes terminal or flowers in lateral panicles, distinctly pedunculate 16
2a. Flowers in sessile cymes or cymose fascicles 3
b. Flowers in pedunculate cymes 10
3a. Leaves glabrous beneath; disc not pitted 4
b. Leaves tomentose beneath; disc pitted 6
4a. Branchlets fasciculate 9. Ziziphus jujuba
b. Branchlets not fasciculate 5
5a. Leaves elliptic, obtuse; basal nerves prominent beneath and continued to the apex 6. Ziziphus glabrata
b. Leaves ovate, not obtuse; basal nerves not prominent beneath and not continued to the apex 13. Ziziphus oxyphylla
6a. Leaves obliquely ovate, entire or minutely denticulate, base oblique 7
b. Leaves not obliquely ovate, serrulate, base rounded 8
7a. Transverse nerves at right angle to mid-rib 3. Ziziphus brunoniana
b. Transverse nerves not at right angle to mid-rib 12. Ziziphus oenoplia
8a. Leaves truncate at apex 15. Ziziphus truncata
b. Leaves not truncate at apex 9
9a. Leaves fuscus tomentose beneath 10. Ziziphus mauritiana
b. Leaves grey tomentose beneath 11. Ziziphus nummularia
10a. Style 3-cleft, distinct or nearly so 11
b. Style 2-cleft, connate up to the middle 13
11a. Leaves and fruits tomentose 17. Ziziphus xylopyra
b. Leaves glabrous, except on nerves beneath; fruits glabrous 12
12a. Plants armed with thorns 7. Ziziphus horrida
b. Plants unarmed 4. Ziziphus caracutta
13a. Ovary villous 14
b. Ovary glabrous 15
14a Leaves acuminate; petals absent; fruits obovoid, pointed at apex 2. Ziziphus apetala
b. Leaves obtusely caudate-acuminate; petals present; fruits globose, not pointed at apex 1. Ziziphus andamanica
15a. Leaves more than 5 cm long, lateral nerves continous to the apex; petioles up to 7 mm long 8. Ziziphus incurva
b. Leaves less than 5 cm long, lateral nerves end near the apex; petioles more than 7 mm long 16. Ziziphus williamii
16a. Petals absent; primary nerves branched 14. Ziziphus rugosa
b. Petals present; primary nerves unbranched 5. Ziziphus funiculosa

JSP Page
  • Search