Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Ziziphus jujuba Miller, Gard. Dict. ed. 8, 1768. Z. sativa Gaertner, Fruct. 1: 202. 1788. Z. vulgaris Lam., Encycl. 3: 317. 1789; M. Lawson in Fl. Brit. India 1: 632. 1875.

Punj.: Ban beri, Ber, Bhitni, Birari, Kandika, Kandiari, Simli, Sinjli.

Small trees or shrubs, 7.5-9 m tall, glabrous; branches flexuose, often with dull grey cuticle; prickles unequal, one straight, about 3 cm long, the other recurved, ca 0.7 cm long. Leaves obliquely ovate-lanceolate, 1.3-5 x 0.7-7.3 cm, apex obtusely acute, base slightly acute or rounded, crenulate, glabrous, basally 3-nerved; primary and secondary nerves camptodromous; petioles 2-4 mm long. Inflorescence 2-12 -flowered, axillary fascicles. Flowers 5 mm across, glabrous; pedicels 1-2 mm long, bracts subulate. Calyx lobes deltoid, 1.5 mm long, acute keeled within to the base, thickened at margin and triangular apex. Petals 1.2 mm long. Stamens equal to petals; anthers dorsifixed. Disc thin, 5-lobed, sometimes faintly 10-lobed, glabrous; lobes emarginate. Ovary bicarpellary, bilocular; style 2-cleft, connate up to the middle; arms curved at apex. Drupes dark red or black, ovoid-oblong, 1.7 x 1-1.5 cm, succulent, obtuse at both ends, glabrous; kernel 2-celled, rugose. Seeds 2, compressed, black.

Fl. : March - June; Fr. : Throughout the cold season.

Distrib. India: Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh.

Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, China, Mongolia, Japan and S. Europe.

Notes. Chromosome number: 2n = 42, 72, 96 (Srinivasan in Cur. Sci. 21: 224. 1952; Moringa et al. in Cytologia 1: 16. 1929).

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