Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Trigonostemon aurantiacus (Kurz ex Teijsm. & Binn.) Boerl., Handl. Fl. Nederl. Ind. 3(1): 284. 1900. Tylosepalum aurantiacum Kurz ex Teijsm. & Binn. in Natuurk. Tijdschr. Ned- Indie 27: 50. 1864. Trigonostemon aurantiacus var. rubriflorus N.P.Balakr. & Chakrab. in J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 5: 169. 1984.


Shrubs or trees, 1 - 10 m tall. Leaves elliptic, oblong-elliptic to obovate (often narrowly so) or oblanceolate, cuneate-attenuate or obtuse to rounded at base, repand-serrulate or repanddenticulate to subentire along margins, caudate or acuminate at apex, 7 - 32 x 3 - 9 cm, coriaceous, glabrous above, glabrous or often sparsely appressed puberulous towards base beneath, penninerved; lateral nerves 7 - 14 pairs; petioles 2 - 3 (- 4) cm long, with 2 setiform glandular (0.8 - 1.3 mm long) appendages at apex on upper side; stipules minute or obsolete. Male inflorescences cauli- or ramiflorous or often axillary, fasciculate, few-flowered, subtended by minute hairy bracts; pedicels 6 - 12 mm long; sepals orbicular, 0.8 - 1.3 mm across, orange when fresh, dorsally gibbous; petals subflabellate or spathulate-obovate, ca 2 x 1.3 - 2 mm, deep red or orange-red when fresh, blackish crimson when dry; disc glands 0.4 - 0.6 mm long; stamens 3; column 1 - 1.5 mm long, very shortly trifid at apex; anthers ovoid. Female inflorescences terminal, pseudoracemose or very narrowly thyrsoid, (2 -) 9 - 60 cm long; peduncles 1.5 - 40 cm long; bracts foliaceous, 1 - 1.5 x 0.2 – 0.6 cm, the upper bracts subulate, 4 - 7 mm long; pedicels 6 - 20 mm long, thickened upwards; sepals broadly ovate, elliptic to orbicular, 0.7 - 1 x 0.7 - 2 mm, dorsally gibbous; petals elliptic to obovate-spathulate, 3.5 - 4 x 2 - 2.5 mm, deep red inside, orange outside when fresh, blackish crimson when dry; disc glands squarish or oblong, ca 0.5 mm long; ovary trigonous to subglobose, ca 1 mm in diam., glabrous; styles 0.3 - 0.6 mm long; stigmas capitate. Fruits subglobose, 10 - 12 mm in diam., glabrous, smooth, blackish when dry; pedicels 2.5 - 4.5 cm long.

Fl. & Fr. March - Aug.

Distrib. India: Common in inland primary forests as the second storey, or in mixed forests or scrubs, on sandy, clayey or rocky loam, up to about 200 m altitude. Andaman & Nicobar Islands.

Myanmar, Thailand, Malaya, Java and Sumatra.




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